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42 terms

Chemistry - Chapter 8

A Beka Chemistry. Chapter 8 terms
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Johann Döbereiner
he put elements in groups of 3 called triads
John Newlands
he noticed similarities in every 8th element, which he called the law of octaves
Dmitri Mendeleev
he published a periodic table with elements arranged by increasing atomic mass and grouped in columns according to similar properties
periodic law
states that the physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
Henry Moseley
he said that elements should be arranged by increasing atomic number
group
vertical column of the periodic table
period
horizontal row of the periodic table
semimetals or metalloids
elements that have properties between metals and nonmetals
representative elements
collective term for all the elements in the A columns of the periodic table (IA-VIIIA)
transition metals
collective term for all the elements in the B columns of the periodic table
inner transition metals
the element in the two rows set off by themselves
alkali metals
the elements in column IA
alkaline earth metals
the elements in column IIA
chalcogens
the elements in column VIA
halogens
the elements in column VIIA
noble gases
the elements in column VIIIA
oxygen family
the other name for the chalcogens
inert gases
another name for the noble gases
halogens
this group's name means "salt formers" because they commonly react with metals to form salts
noble gases
elements in this group rarely undergo chemical reactions due to their filled outer shells of electrons
alkali metals
elements in this group reacts vigorously with water
alkaline earth metals
elements in this group usually exist as 2+ ions
group number
for all the representative elements, the total number of electrons in the largest energy (n) level is equal to this
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost energy level; they are generally the ones involved in chemical bonding
upper right
elements with the smallest atomic radius (size) are found in this corner of the periodic table
lower left
elements with the largest atomic radius (size) are found in this corner of the periodic table
smaller
simple cations are always ___ than the neutral atoms from which they are formed
larger
simple anions are always ___ than the neutral atoms from which they are formed
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom
upper right
elements with the highest first ionization energy are found in this corner of the periodic table
lower left
elements with the lowest first ionization energy are found in this corner of the periodic table
metallic character
a chemical property associated with metals and with low ionization energy
upper right
elements with the least metallic character are found in this corner of the periodic table
lower left
elements with the greatest metallic character are found in this corner of the periodic table
electron affinity
the amount of energy involved in the addition of one electron to a gaseous atom of an element
upper right
this corner of the periodic table has the most negative electron affinity
lower left
this corner of the periodic table has the least negative electron affinity
electronegativity
a measure of the ability of a chemically combined atom to attract electrons to itself
upper right
elements with the highest electronegativity are found in this corner of the periodic table
lower left
elements with the lowest electronegativity are found in this corner of the periodic table
fluorine
the element with the highest electronegativity
cesium
the element with the lowest electronegativity