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sociology (deviance&groups/organizations)

STUDY
PLAY
activities, time, well
people in a primary group share _____, spend _____, and know eachother _____
unique, irreplaceable
primary groups are _______ and _____
secondary groups
goal oriented-not very personal
secondary groups
have emotional ties, are temporary, goal oriented, and are impersonal
instrumental leadership
group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks (goal oriented leadership)
expressive leadership
group leadership that is people oriented
authoritarian
this type of decision making is where one person makes all the decisions (it's not necessarily negative)
democratic
this type of decision making has a leader but everyone helps make a decision (the leader gets the group involved)
laissez faire
this type of decision making is the most equal-everyone gets 1 vote per se (example: classroom setting)
group conformity
when people are willing to compromise their own judgement to fit in
asch's research
this persons research concluded that people would compromise their own judgement to fit in (did this by using the 'vision test')
authority
Milgram showed people will follow directions not only from ______
Milgram's research
this person made an experiment where teachers would need to shock students if they got an answer wrong-originally teachers rejected the idea
Janis' group think
this theory stated that experts are also willing to compromise their own judgement to fit in
reference group
this groups purpose is to serve as a social yardstick/backbone
stouffers research
this was based off of WW2-it was if saying 'What do you think?'
ingroup
want to be part of this
loyalty
something you stand for
outgroup
not the most popular group of people
outcasts
not very well understood
dyad
group involving two people
intimate but not very stable
triard
group involving 3 people
less intimate but more stable
more
_____ space effects the chance of contact among group members
people they know
in social diversity, if people are put in a larger group they will only maintain contact with _____ _____ ______
network
loose web of social ties
formal organizations
this is a large secondary group organized to achieve goals more efficiently
utilitarian
this type of formal organization gets paid (Starbucks)
coercive
this type of formal organization is a total institution (punishment or treatment)
normative
this type of formal organization does not get paid (voluntary)
heterogeneous
when people are put in a _________ group and have something in common they are more likely to strike convo
social groups
two or more people who identify with one another
temporal
a group can have ______ status
bureaucracy
the organizational model designed to accomplish tasks efficiently
industrial revolution
bureaucracy became popular during the _______ ________
specialization, hierarchy of offices, rules/regulations, technology competence, impersonality, formal written communication
these are the six characteristics of a bureaucracy
technology competence
understands/can utilize technology
impersonality
dehumanizing-just an employee
organizational environment
this refers to factors outside the organization that affect its operation (examples: technology, economic and political trends, population patterns)
bureaucracy
problems with _________ include alienation, inefficiency and ritualism, inertia
bureaucratic alienation
this has the potential to dehumanize individuals
inefficiency and ritualism
an example of this is thousands of pages of rules (red tape)
inertia
bureaucracies whose original purpose is done but they still exist
oligarchy
rule of the many by the few
scientific management
observe workforce
get data
analyze workers
hiring
in the 1960's big business was inefficient and unfair in their ____ practices
female advantage
this states that women have flexibility and strong communication skills (edge over men)
competitive, group cooperation
when it comes to hiring practices the US is _____ and Japan has ___ _______
insecure, lifetime
when it comes to job security the US is _____ and Japan has ______ security
separate, all aspects
when it comes to holistic involvement the US is _____ and Japan is involved in ____ ______
specialized, broad based
when it comes to training the US implements ______ training and Japan implements _____ ____ training
CEO, group
when it comes to decision making, the ____ makes the most of the decisions in the US and in Japan ___ decisions are made
creative autonomy
come in on your own schedule (apple and google)
competitive work teams
the Japanese use this-encourage cooperation
flatter organization
this type of organization is where power is spread among all branches
efficiency, calculability, uniformity, automation
these are the 4 principles of McDonaldization
efficiency
this principle of McDonaldization means to get things done as quickly as possible
calculability
this principle of McDonaldization says to do it according to plan
uniformity
this principle of McDonaldization says leave nothing to chance
automation
this principle of McDonaldization says that humans are unreliable
deviance
different or unexpected behavior (outsider)
social control
attempts a society makes at controlling thoughts/behaviors
outsider
a deviant person is considered an ______
formal
the criminal justice system is a _____ type of social control
crime/criminality
genetic research looks for possible links between biology and _______/____
reckless, dinitz
____ and ____'s created the containment theory
containment theory
this theory said that positive self images can contain negative impulses
informal
this type of social control would include scolding by mom or dad
formal
this type of social control would include receiving a high school diploma
deviance
the foundation of _____ includes:
-varying according to cultural norms (legalized gambling)
-people become ____ when others define them that way
-rule making and breaking involve social power
emile durkheim
____ _____ did the structural-functional analysis of deviance
emile durkheim
this person asked how without evil how do we define whats good
values, norms
deviance affirms cultural _____ and _____
moral
responding to deviance clarifies ____ boundaries
social unity
responding to deviance promotes _____ _____
social change
deviance encourages ____ ____
mertons strain theory
this theory explains that strain affects our culture by putting an emphasis on wealth/social status
innovation, ritualism, retreatism, rebellion
these are the four types of deviance according to Merton
cloward and ohlin
these two people extended Merton's theory to deviant subcultures by saying that deviance occurs more when theres limited opportunities
capone, violent gangs, drugs/booze
these are the three delinquent subcultures
lower class youth
cohen suggested delinquency is most popular in this class (____ _____ ____)
walter miller
___ ____ created the 6 traits of a deviant subculture
trouble, toughness, lack of control, street smarts, freedom, lack control
walter miller created these 6 conclusions of a deviant subculture
stigma
a strong negative label given to someone
primary deviance
a one time offense (underage drinking)
secondary deviance
multiple offenses (repeated) binge drinking, stealing, etc
degregation ceremonies
stigmas are often attached to formal rituals called _____ ______
retrospective labeling
this type of labeling is one used with a current deviant person but looking back and interpreting why they may have turned out to be deviant
projective labeling
projecting forward and thinking that someone could potentially end up being a deviant person
mentally ill
be careful when labeling someone ____ ___
believed to involve body not mind
who, what, how we respond
these are the 3 consequences of defining deviance in morals and medical
differential association theory
this theory states that deviant behavior is done in groups
hirschi
this persons theory states that we all want to be deviant at one point in life
control theory
this theory states that we all want to be deviant at one point in life
hirschi
this person believed that conformity arises through attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief
rich, rich, powerful
the three principles of deviance and power state that
-laws favor ______
-norms of society reflect interests of ____
-_____ have resources to resist deviant labeling
steve spitzer
____ ___ suggested that deviant labels are applied to those who impede the operation of capitalism
white collar crime
these types of crimes are committed by people of high social position in the course of their operations
corporate crimes
these types of crimes are committed by corporations against employees and consumers
hate crime
this type of crime is motivated by racial or other bias
organized crime
this type of crime is planned and carried out by a group of people (gangs)
the act itself, the criminal intent
these are the 2 components of crime
crimes against the person
this crime involves direct violence against others-rape and murder
crimes against poverty
these crimes involved theft of property belonging to others-arson
victimless crimes
these crimes have no victims-drug usage-underage drinking
15-24, male, lower class, black
street criminal profile
-age
-gender
-class
-race
plea bargain
negotiating a guilty plea
ca reduce charge and punishment
police
how serious is the crime
suspect cooperative or not
has the suspect been arrested before
bystanders present
the ____ evaluates this
court
deal with plea bargains
_______ behavior
retribution
an eye for an eye
deterrence
discourage future deviance
rehabilitation
reform offenders while in prison
societal protection
temporary removal of offender
permanent removal by death