45 terms

Psych Ch. 13

industry-versus-inferiority stage
according to Erickson, the period from age 6 to 12 characterized by a focus of efforts to attain competence in meeting the challenges presented by parents, peers, school, and other complexities of the modern world
success in industry-versus-inferiority stage
brings with it feelings of mastery and proficiency and a growing sense of competence
failure in industry-versus-inferiority stage
lead to feelings of failure and inadequacy; as a result, children may withdraw both from academic pursuits, showing less interest and motivation to excel, and from interaction with peers
children's view of who they are
in addition to shifting focus from eternal characteristics to internal, psychological traits, it becomes less simplistic and have greater complexity; as they get older, children discover that they may be good at some things and not so good at others
children's self-concept
become divided into personal and academic spheres; children evaluate themselves in four manor areas, and each of these areas can be broken down even further; the nonacademic self-concept includes the components of physical appearance, peer relations, and physical ability; academic self-concept is similarly divided; research on student's self-concept in English, mathematics, and nonacademic realms has found that the separate self-concepts are not always correlated, although there is overlap among them
social comparison
the desire to evaluate one's own behavior, abilities, experiences, an opinions by comparing them to those of others; according to a theory first suggested by psychologist Leon Festinger, when concrete, objective measures ability are lacking, people turn to social reality to evaluate themselves
social reality
refers to understanding that is derived from how others act, think, feel, and view the world
downward social comparisons
comparisons with other children who are obviously less competent or successful; protects children's self-esteem; by comparing themselves to those who are less able, children ensure that they will come out on top and thereby preserve an image of themselves as successful;
an individual's overall and specific positive and negative self-evaluation; whereas self-concept reflects beliefs and cognition about the self, self-esteem is more emotionally oriented; at the age of 7, most children have self-esteem that reflects a global, fairly simple view of themselves; as children progress into the middle-childhood years, however, their self-esteem is higher for some areas an lower in others
Authoritative child-rearing style
helps break the cycle of failure by promoting a child's self-esteem;
social identity theory
members of a minority group are likely to accept the negative views held by a majority group only if they perceive that there is little realistic possibility of changing the power and status differences between the groups
Developmental Psychologist William Damon
suggests a child's view of friendship passes through three distinct stages
stage 1: basin friendship on others' behaviors
ranges from around 4 to 7 years of age; children see friends as others who like them and with whom they share toys and other activities; they view the children whom they spend the most time as their friends; children in first stage don't take others' personal qualities into consideration; friends are viewed largely in terms of presenting opportunities for pleasant interactions
stage 2: basing friendship on trust
lasts from around age 8 to age 10; covers a period in which children take others' personal qualities and traits as well as the rewards they provide into consideration; but the centerpiece of friendship in this second stage is mutual trust; friends are seen as those who can be counted on to help out when they are needed
stage 3: basing friendship on psychological closeness
the third stage of friendship begins toward the end of middle childhood, from 11 to 15 years of age; during this period, children begin to develop the view of friendship that they hold during adolescence; the main criteria for friendship shift toward intimacy and loyalty; friendship is characterized by feelings of closeness, usually brought on by sharing personal thoughts and feelings through mutual disclosure
what makes a child popular?
more popular children tend to form friendships with more popular individuals, while less popular children are more likely to have friends who are less popular; popularity is also related to the number of friends a child has;
groups that are viewed as exclusive and desirable, an they tend t interact with a greater number of other children
social competence
the collection of social skills that permit individuals to perform successfully in social settings;
social problem-solving
the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others
Developmental Psychologist Kenneth Dodge
suggests that successful social-problem-solving proceeds through a series of steps that correspond to children's information-processing strategies; he argues that the manner in which children solve social problems is a consequence of the decisions that the make at each point in the sequence
popular children
are better at interpreting the meaning of others' behavior accurately; they possess a wider inventory of techniques fro dealing with social problems;
less popular children
tend to be less effective at understanding the causes of others's behavior, and because of this their reactions to others may be inappropriate; in addition, their strategies fro dealing with social problems are more limited; they sometimes simply don't know how to apologize or help someone who is unhappy feel better
learned helplessness
because they don't understand the root causes of their unpopularity, children may feel that they have little or no ability to improve their situation; as a result, they may simply give up and not even try to become more involved with their peers; in turn, their learned helplessness becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, reducing the chances that they will become more popular in the future
gender friendships
avoidance of the opposite sex becomes quite pronounced during middle childhood, to the degree that the social networks of most boys and girls consist almost entirely of same-sex groupings; the action of opposite gender friendships have romantic overtones;
border work
helps emphasize the clear boundaries that exist between the two sexes; in addition, it may pave the way fro future interactions that do involve romantic or sexual interests, when school-age children reach adolescence and cross-sex interactions become more socially endorsed
dominance hierarchy
ranking that represents the relative social power of those in a group;
restrictive play
interactions are interrupted when a child feels that his status is challenged
almost 85% of girls and 80% of boys report experiencing some form of harassment in school at least once, and 160,000 U.S. schoolchildren stay home from school each day because they are afraid of being bullied; others encounter bullying on the internet, which may be even more painful because often the bullying is done anonymously or may involve public postings
about 10% to 15% of students bully others at one time or another; about half of all bullies come from abusive homes, meaning, of course, that half don't; they tend to watch ore television containing violence, and they misbehave more at hoe and at school than do nonbullies
a period in which parents and children jointly control children's behavior
sibling rivalry
siblings competing or quarreling with one another; such rivalry can be most intense when siblings are similar in age ad of the same sex; parents may intensify sibling rivalry by being perceived as favoring one child over another; such perceptions may or may not be accurate; in some cases, perceived favoritism not only leads to sibling rivalry, but may damage the self-esteem of the younger siblings
self-care child
children who let themselves into their homes after schools and wait alone until their caretakers return from work; previously known as latchkey children; some 12% to 14% of children n the U.S. between the ages of 5 and 12 spend some time alone after school, without adult supervision
latchkey children
sad, pathetic and neglected children
Sociologist Sandra Hofferth
considers a few hours alone may provide a helpful period of decompression for children; furthermore, it may provide the opportunity for children to develop a greater sense of autonomy
immediately after, both children and parents may show several types of psychological maladjustment for a period that may last from 6 months to 2 years; children may be anxious, experience depression, or show sleep disturbances and phobias; even though children most often live with their mothers following a divorce, the quality of the mother-child relationship declines in the majority of cases, often because children see themselves caught in the middle between their mothers and fathers
children and divorce
during the early stage of middle childhood, children whose parents are divorcing often blame themselves for the breakup; by the age of 10, children feel pressure to choose sides taking the position of either the mother or the father; because of this, they experience some degree of divided loyalty
aftermath of divorce
some studies have found that 18 months to 2 year later, most children begin to return to their predivorce state of psychological adjustment; for many children, there are minimal long-term consequences
affects of divorce
twice as many children of divorced parents enter psychological counseling as children from intact families; in addition, people who have experienced parental divorce are more at risk for experiencing divorce themselves later in life
how children react to divorce
depends on several factors; one is the economic standing of the family the child is living with; in other cases, the negative consequences of divorce are less severe because the divorce reduces the hostility and anger in the home; for some children divorce is an improvement over living with parents who have an intact but unhappy marriage, high in conflict
single-parent families
almost one-fourth of all children under the age of 18 in the U.S. live with only one parent; in rare cases, death is the reason fro single parenthood; more frequently, no spouse was ever present, the spouses have divorced, or the spouse is absent; in the vast majority of cases, the single parent who is present is the mother
multigenerational families
the presence of multiple generations in the same house can make for a rich living experience for children, who experience the influence of both their parents and their grandparents; on the other hand, multigenerational families also have the potential for conflict, with several adults acting as disciplinarians without coordination what they do
blended families
a remarried couple that has at least one stepchild living with them
role ambiguity
children may be uncertain about their responsibilities, how to behave toward stepparents and step-siblings, and how to make a host of decisions that have wide-ranging implications for their role in the family
families with gay and lesbian parents
a growing body of research on the effects of same-sex parenting on children shows that children in lesbian and gay households develop similarly to the children of heterosexual families; their sexual orientation is related to that of their parents; their behavior is no more or less gender typed; and they seem equally well-adjusted
poverty and family life
economically disadvantaged children are at risk for poorer academic performance, higher raters of aggression, and conduct problems; declines in economic well-being have been linked to mental health problems