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Chemistry- Light + Atom

Light Bohr Quantum Mechanics
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Wavelength (ƛ)
the distance between similar points on successive waves
Frequency (ν)
the number of waves passing a given point per second
Crest
the highest point of a wavelength
Trough
the lowest point of a wavelength
Amplitude
distance from the baseline to the crest (depends on the intensity or brightness of the light)
Electromagnetic Radiation
-composed of electric and magnetic field traveling together
-the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields are constantly changing
-wavelength of light waves
Wavelength of Light Waves
the distance between successive and maximum values of the electric field
Speed of Light
constant
-3.00 x 10¹⁰ cm/sec
-3.00 x 10⁸ m/sec
Speed of Light Equation
speed of light=wavelength x frequency
c=ƛxν
Speed of Light (If Consistent)
Wavelength and Frequency are Inversely Related
-the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency
-the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency
Visible Spectrum
Infrared, ROYGBIV, Ultraviolet
Longer Wavelength→Shorter Wavelength
Lower Frequency→Higher Frequency
Wave Characteristics
Diffraction and Interference... light undergoes diffraction and interference... therefore light has as wave nature
Diffraction
the bending of waves through a small opening; a straight beam of parallel waves emerges as a rounded pattern that spreads out
Interference
an effect that results when two series of waves merge into each other: constructive and destructive
Constructive Interference
bigger waves
Destructive Interference
stops/reduces the power of the waves; troph to troph, crest to crest
Photon
an indivisible amount of light
Planck's Equation for Energy Contained in a Photon
e=hν
-energy in a photon is proportional to the frequency
Atomic Spectrum
a pattern of frequencies of light emitted by an atom
Electron (Light)
particle within the atom responsible or the absorption and emission of light
Bohr's Model of the Atom
-adds energy levels for electrons
-his model perfectly explains all the lines in his atomic spectra
De Broglie Differs from Bohr's
De Broglie→ light as a wavelength
Bohr→ thought of the electron just as a particle
Davisson and Germer
shoot a beam of electrons through a crystal and obtain a diffraction pattern
-verified light as a wavelength
Quantum Mechanics vs. Newtonian Mechanics
quantum mechanics: very small objects, near speed of light
newtonian mechanic: regular sized objects, normal speeds
Schrödinger
derived a wave equation which allows us to calculate the probability of finding an electron
Orbital
the region which there is the highest probability of finding an electron
Quantum Number
gives a little more information about the probably location of an electron
N (Quantum Number)
energy levels
1-7 (ground state)
L (Quantum Number)
sub-levels, shape of orbital
0→n-1
M (Quantum Number)
orientation of orbital
-l→0→+l
S (Quantum Number)
spin on electron
-½, +½
Formula Used for Computing the Number of Orbitals at an Energy Level
Formula Used for Computing the Maximum Number of Electrons for an Energy Level
2n² (square n first)
Pauli's Exclusion Principle
no two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
it is impossible, to know with certainty, both the position + velocity of an electron at the same time