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Wavelength (ƛ)

the distance between similar points on successive waves

Frequency (ν)

the number of waves passing a given point per second

Crest

the highest point of a wavelength

Trough

the lowest point of a wavelength

Amplitude

distance from the baseline to the crest (depends on the intensity or brightness of the light)

Electromagnetic Radiation

-composed of electric and magnetic field traveling together

-the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields are constantly changing

-wavelength of light waves

-the strengths of the electric and magnetic fields are constantly changing

-wavelength of light waves

Wavelength of Light Waves

the distance between successive and maximum values of the electric field

Speed of Light

constant

-3.00 x 10¹⁰ cm/sec

-3.00 x 10⁸ m/sec

-3.00 x 10¹⁰ cm/sec

-3.00 x 10⁸ m/sec

Speed of Light Equation

speed of light=wavelength x frequency

c=ƛxν

c=ƛxν

Speed of Light (If Consistent)

Wavelength and Frequency are Inversely Related

-the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency

-the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency

-the longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency

-the shorter the wavelength, the higher the frequency

Visible Spectrum

Infrared, ROYGBIV, Ultraviolet

Longer Wavelength→Shorter Wavelength

Lower Frequency→Higher Frequency

Longer Wavelength→Shorter Wavelength

Lower Frequency→Higher Frequency

Wave Characteristics

Diffraction and Interference... light undergoes diffraction and interference... therefore light has as wave nature

Diffraction

the bending of waves through a small opening; a straight beam of parallel waves emerges as a rounded pattern that spreads out

Interference

an effect that results when two series of waves merge into each other: constructive and destructive

Constructive Interference

bigger waves

Destructive Interference

stops/reduces the power of the waves; troph to troph, crest to crest

Photon

an indivisible amount of light

Planck's Equation for Energy Contained in a Photon

e=hν

-energy in a photon is proportional to the frequency

-energy in a photon is proportional to the frequency

Atomic Spectrum

a pattern of frequencies of light emitted by an atom

Electron (Light)

particle within the atom responsible or the absorption and emission of light

Bohr's Model of the Atom

-adds energy levels for electrons

-his model perfectly explains all the lines in his atomic spectra

-his model perfectly explains all the lines in his atomic spectra

De Broglie Differs from Bohr's

De Broglie→ light as a wavelength

Bohr→ thought of the electron just as a particle

Bohr→ thought of the electron just as a particle

Davisson and Germer

shoot a beam of electrons through a crystal and obtain a diffraction pattern

-verified light as a wavelength

-verified light as a wavelength

Quantum Mechanics vs. Newtonian Mechanics

quantum mechanics: very small objects, near speed of light

newtonian mechanic: regular sized objects, normal speeds

newtonian mechanic: regular sized objects, normal speeds

Schrödinger

derived a wave equation which allows us to calculate the probability of finding an electron

Orbital

the region which there is the highest probability of finding an electron

Quantum Number

gives a little more information about the probably location of an electron

N (Quantum Number)

energy levels

1-7 (ground state)

1-7 (ground state)

L (Quantum Number)

sub-levels, shape of orbital

0→n-1

0→n-1

M (Quantum Number)

orientation of orbital

-l→0→+l

-l→0→+l

S (Quantum Number)

spin on electron

-½, +½

-½, +½

Formula Used for Computing the Number of Orbitals at an Energy Level

n²

Formula Used for Computing the Maximum Number of Electrons for an Energy Level

2n² (square n first)

Pauli's Exclusion Principle

no two electrons in an atom can have the same 4 quantum numbers

Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle

it is impossible, to know with certainty, both the position + velocity of an electron at the same time