45 terms

Psych Unit 4 Part 2

stimulus output
sound waves
air molecules pounding against ear drum
sound waves
vibration created by air molecules/fluid colliding in ear
# of complete wavelengths that occur per sound
determinant of pitch (high/low)
determines loudness
more decibels the sound has - louder it is going to be
primary determinant of timbre
multiples of the basic tone
quality of the sound
process of hearing
pinna-auditory canal-tympanic membrane-ossicles-oval window-cochlea-basilar membrane-organ of corti
outer ear
pinna, auditory canal, tympanic membrane
fleshy part on side of head
auditory canal
hole in the ear
tympanic membrane
ear drum
middle ear
ossicles, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window
3 tiny bones: malleus/hammer, incus/anvil, stapes/stirrup
oval window
sends vibration to cochlea
inner ear
cochlea, basilar membrane, organ of corti
cochlear fluid moves when oval window vibrates
determines pitch of sound
basilar membrane
receptor cells of sound waves are located here
organ of corti
has receptor cells for perceiving sound waves
place theory
describes how we hear high-pitched noises and not low-pitched ones
frequency theory
how we are able to detect low-pitched sounds up to frequencies of 1000 waves per second
volley principle
receptor cells in ear fire in a sequence
pattern of firing corresponds to frequency of sound wave
kinesthetic senses
info about movement and position of body parts
muscles, joints, and tendons
stretch receptors
connected to muscles
tells brain when muscles are stretching/contracting
golgi tendon organs
nerve endings attached to tendons
vestibular senses
balance and body position
in inner ear
semicircular canal fluid - speed and direction of body movement
conduction hearing loss
occurs because eardrum punctured, ossicles losing ability to vibrate
ability for each to conduct sound vibrations decreases
sensorineural hearing loss
nerve deafness
occurs because cochlea's hair cell receptors and nerves being damaged
caused by heredity, aging, prolonged exposure to loud music, disease
cochlear implant
converts sounds into electrical signals
electrodes treaded into cochlea
when sound converted into electrical impulse; impulses stimulate auditory nerve
brain interprets stimulation as sound
skin- biggest sense organ
pain, pressure, warmth, cold
cold fibers
fire in response to cold stimuli
speed up firing rate when skin gets cool, slows firing when skin warms up
warm fibers
fire in response to hot stimuli
speed up firing rate when skin gets warm, slow firing rate when skin cools down
paradoxical heat phenomenon
when both hot and cold fibers stimulated at the same time
heat always comes first
congenital indifference to pain
feel no pain at all
gene mutation
extreme sensitivity to pain
nerve damage somewhere in PNS
phantom limb phenomenon
feeling a limb after an amputation
brian wired to expect to feel pain, sensations from all over your body
gate control theory of pain
neurological gate in spinal cord controls transmission of pain messages to brain
gate is opened and colored depending on interaction between 2 fibers
large fibers
closes gate and the pain message goes away
don't feel more pain
small fibers
open and allow pain messages to get to brain
make you feel pain
pain affects psyche
if you tell yourself it will hurt, it will
personality affects pain
if you think it won't font, it wont
chemical sense
flavor = taste+smell
taste sensations - sweet, salty, sour, bitter, umami
interaction between taste receptors and food causes neurons to fie and info gets sent to taste center of brain, thalamus and limbic system
hold taste buds - receptor cells
chemical sense
activated by ode rant binding protein produced in nasal gland
when you breathe, met of OBP is sprayed in now and connects with molecules of stimulus
OBP activates smell receptors in olfactory epithelium
receptor cells connect to olfactory bulb