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the mental activeness associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.


a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.


a mental image or best example of a category.


a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.


a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently.

Representativeness Heuristic

judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.

Availability Heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.


a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.

Confirmation Bias

a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.


the inability to see a problem from a new perspective.

Mental Set

a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.

Functional fixedness

the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.


the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.


the way an issue is posed.

Belief Bias

the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning. sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.

Belief Perseverance

clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

Inductive Reasoning

drawing conclusions about all members of a category based on a few members.
from specific to general

Deductive Reasoning

drawing conclusions about individual items based on the general characteristics of the group.
from General to Specific







Intelligence test

assesing individual's mental aptitudes, and comparing them to others.

Mental Age

chronological age that corresponds to a given performance.

Chronological Age

number age.


measure acedemic (verbal & math) aptitude- comprehension, direction, adapt, self evaluate

Intelligence quotient

ratio of M.A. to C.A. times 100


the ability to understand and adapt to environment using a combo of inherented and learned.

Factor Analysis

stat. procedure identifies clusters of related items on a test.

General Intelligence

underlies specific mental ability, measured by every task of an intelligence test.

Savant Syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.

Emotional Intelligence

the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.

Aptitude Tests

a test designed to predict a person's future performance.

Achievement tests

a test designed to access what a person has learned.


the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests.


defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.


the behavior a test is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity. (the SAT)

Mental Retardation

a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.

Down Syndrome

a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.


the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.


a measure of how much of a trait's variation is explained by genetic factors.


testing achievements that have been established.

Fluid Intelligence

our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills.

Crystalized Intelligence

using knowledge accumulated over time.



Divergent Thinking

divergent thinking

Convergent Thinking

convergent thinking

Stereotype Threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.

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