Thinking, Intelligence, Creativity, & Mental Retardation Terms
the mental activeness associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
a mental image or best example of a category.
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently.
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.
the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.
the way an issue is posed.
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning. sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
drawing conclusions about all members of a category based on a few members.
from specific to general
drawing conclusions about individual items based on the general characteristics of the group.
from General to Specific
assesing individual's mental aptitudes, and comparing them to others.
chronological age that corresponds to a given performance.
measure acedemic (verbal & math) aptitude- comprehension, direction, adapt, self evaluate
ratio of M.A. to C.A. times 100
the ability to understand and adapt to environment using a combo of inherented and learned.
stat. procedure identifies clusters of related items on a test.
underlies specific mental ability, measured by every task of an intelligence test.
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
a test designed to predict a person's future performance.
a test designed to access what a person has learned.
the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests.
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
the behavior a test is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity. (the SAT)
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
a measure of how much of a trait's variation is explained by genetic factors.
testing achievements that have been established.
our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills.
using knowledge accumulated over time.
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.