How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

47 terms

Thinking, Intelligence, Creativity, & Mental Retardation Terms

STUDY
PLAY
Cognition
the mental activeness associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concepts
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototypes
a mental image or best example of a category.
Algorithm
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Heuristics
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgements and solve problems efficiently.
Representativeness Heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory.
Insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
Confirmation Bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Mental Set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
Functional fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions.
Overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgements.
Framing
the way an issue is posed.
Belief Bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning. sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
Belief Perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Inductive Reasoning
drawing conclusions about all members of a category based on a few members.
from specific to general
Deductive Reasoning
drawing conclusions about individual items based on the general characteristics of the group.
from General to Specific
Syllogism
Syllogism
Analogy
analogy
Assesment
assesment
Intelligence test
assesing individual's mental aptitudes, and comparing them to others.
Mental Age
chronological age that corresponds to a given performance.
Chronological Age
number age.
Stanford-Binet
measure acedemic (verbal & math) aptitude- comprehension, direction, adapt, self evaluate
Intelligence quotient
ratio of M.A. to C.A. times 100
Intelligence
the ability to understand and adapt to environment using a combo of inherented and learned.
Factor Analysis
stat. procedure identifies clusters of related items on a test.
General Intelligence
underlies specific mental ability, measured by every task of an intelligence test.
Savant Syndrome
a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing.
Emotional Intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions.
Aptitude Tests
a test designed to predict a person's future performance.
Achievement tests
a test designed to access what a person has learned.
WAIS-R
the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance subtests.
Standardization
defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
Criterion
the behavior a test is designed to predict; thus the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity. (the SAT)
Mental Retardation
a condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
Down Syndrome
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup.
Creativity
the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas.
Heritability
a measure of how much of a trait's variation is explained by genetic factors.
Norms
testing achievements that have been established.
Fluid Intelligence
our ability to solve abstract problems and pick up new information and skills.
Crystalized Intelligence
using knowledge accumulated over time.
Giftedness
giftedness
Divergent Thinking
divergent thinking
Convergent Thinking
convergent thinking
Stereotype Threat
a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype.