46 terms

AP Psych Ch 14 & 15 - Psychological Disorders & Stress

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Abnormal Behavior
Behavior characterized as atypical, socially unacceptable, distressing to the individual or others, maladaptive, and/or the result of distorted cognitions
Model:
an analogy or a perspective that uses a structure from one field to help scientists describe data in another field
Abnormal psychology
The field of psychology concerned with the assessment, treatment, and prevention of maladaptive behavior.
Prevalence
the percentage of a population displaying a disorder during any specified period.
Case study
a descriptive study that includes an intensive study of one person and allows an intensive examination of a single case, usually chosen for its interesting or unique characteristics
Anxiety
a generalized feeling of fear and apprehension that may be related to a particular situation or object and is often accompanied by increased physiological arousal.
Generalized anxiety disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by persistent anxiety occurring on more days than not for at least 6 months, sometimes with increased activity of the autonomic nervous system, apprehension, excessive muscle tension, and difficulty in concentrating
Phobic disorders
Anxiety disorders characterized by excessive and irrational fear of, and consequent attempted avoidance of, specific objects or situations.
Agoraphobia
anxiety disorder characterized by marked fear and avoidance of being alone in a place from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing
Panic Attack
Anxiety disorders characterized as acute anxiety, accompanied by sharp increases in autonomic nervous system arousal, that is not triggered by a specific event.
Social phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by fear of, and desire to avoid, situations in which the person might be exposed to scrutiny by others and might behave in an embarrassing or humiliating way.
Specific phobia
Anxiety disorder characterized by irrational and persistent fear of a particular object or situation, along with a compelling desire to avoid it.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Anxiety disorder characterized by persistent and uncontrollable thoughts and irrational beliefs that cause the performance of compulsive rituals that interfere with daily life.
Depressive disorders
general category of mood disorders in which people show extreme and persistent sadness, despair, and loss of interest in life's usual activities.
Major depressive disorder
Depressive disorder characterized by loss of interest in almost all of life's usual activities; a sad, hopeless, or discourage mood, sleep disturbance; loss of appetite; loss of energy; and feelings of unworthiness and guilt.
Delusions
False beliefs that are inconsistent with reality but are held in spite of evidence that disproves them.
Learned helplessness
the behavior of giving up or not responding, exhibited by people and animals exposed to negative consequences or punishment over which they feel they have no control.
Vulnerability
A person's diminished ability to deal with demanding life events.
Dissociative disorders
psychological disorders characterized by a sudden but temporary alteration in consciousness, identity, sensorimotor behavior, or memory
Dissociative amnesia
Dissociative disorder characterized by the sudden and extensive inability to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature.
Dissociative identity disorder
dissociative disorder characterized by the existence within an individual of two or more distinct personalities, each of which is dominant at different times and directs the individual's behavior at those times; commonly known as multiple personality disorder.
Schizophrenic disorders
a group of psychological disorders characterized by a lack of reality testing and by deterioration of social and intellectual functioning and personality beginning before age 45 and lasting at least 6 months
Psychotic
suffering from a gross impairment in reality testing that interferes with the ability to meet the ordinary demands of life.
Paranoid type of schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia characterized by hallucinations and delusions of persecution or grandeur (or both), and sometimes irrational jealousy.
Catatonic type of schizophrenia
Type of schizophrenia characterized either by displays of excited or violent motor activity or by stupor.
Disorganized type of schizophrenia
type of schizophrenia characterized by severely disturbed thought processes, frequent incoherence, disorganized behavior, and inappropriate affect.
Residual type of schizophrenia
a schizophrenic disorder in which the person exhibits inappropriate affect, illogical thinking, and/or eccentric behavior but seems generally in touch with reality.
Undifferentiated type of schizophrenia
a schizophrenic disorder that is characterized by a mixture of symptoms and does not meet the diagnostic criteria of any one type.
Concordance rate
The degree to which a condition or traits shared two or more individuals or groups
Double bind
a situation in which an individual is given two different and inconsistent messages.
Bipolar disorder
mood disorder originally know as manic-depressive disorder because it is characterized by behavior that vacillates between two extremes; mania and depression.
Personality disorders
psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and longstanding maladaptive behaviors that typically cause stress and/or social or occupational problems.
Antisocial personality disorder
Personality disorder characterized by egocentricity, and behavior that is irresponsible and that violates the rights of other people, a lack of guilt feelings, an inability to understand other people and a lack of fear of punishment.
Child abuse
physical, emotional, or sexual mistreatment of a child.
Rape
Forcible sexual assault on an unwilling partner.
Burnout
State of emotional and physical exhaustion, lowered productivity, and feelings of isolation, often caused by work-related pressures
Stress
A nonspecific, emotional response to real or imagined challenges or threats; a result of a cognitive appraisal by the individual
Stressor
An environmental stimulus that affects an organism in physically or psychologically injurious ways, usually producing anxiety, tension, and physiological arousal
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Psychological disorder that may become evident after a person has undergone extreme stress caused by some type of disaster; common symptoms include vivid, intrusive recollections or reexperiences of the traumatic event and occasional lapses of normal consciousness
Type A behavior
Behavior pattern characterized by competitiveness, impatience, hostility, and constant efforts to do more in less time
Type B behavior
Behavior pattern exhibited by people who are calmer, more patient, and less hurried than Type A individuals
Psychoneuroimmunology
An interdisciplinary area of study that includes behavioral, neurological, and immune factors and their relationship to the development of disease
Coping
Process by which a person takes some action to manage, master, tolerate, or reduce environmental or internal demands that cause or might cause stress and that tax the individual's inner resources
Resilience
The extent to which people are flexible and respond adaptively to external or internal demands
Health psychology
Subfield concerned with the use of psychological ideas and principles to enhance health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat disease, and improve rehabilitation
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome
three-stage process which describes the body's reaction to stress: 1) alarm reaction, 2) resistance, 3) exahaustion
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