AP Gov Ch. 5
Terms in this set (21)
obligation imposed on government to take positive action to protect citizens from any illegal action of government agencies as well as of other private citizens
discrimination use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion of exclusion
Equal Protection Clause
provision of the Fourteenth Amendment guaranteeing citizens "the equal protection of the laws". This clause has been the basis for the civil rights of African Americas, women, and other groups
the right to vote in political elections.
Jim Crow Laws
laws enacted by southern states following Reconstruction that discriminated against African Americans
the action or state of setting someone or something apart from other people or things or being set apart.
"separate but equal"
doctrine that public accommodations could be segregated by race but still be equal
National Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1990, civil rights organization
a covenant imposing a restriction on the use of land so that the value and enjoyment of adjoining land will be preserved
test used by the Supreme Court in racial discrimination cases and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights, which places the burden of proof on the government rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional
De facto segregation
literally, "by fact"; practices that occur even when there is no legal enforcement, such as school segregation in much of the United States today
De jure segregation
literally, "by law"; legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the South before the 1960s
Massive resistance was a strategy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. of Virginia to unite white politicians and leaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation, particularly after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is an African-American civil rights organization. SCLC, which is closely associated with its first president, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., had a large role in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Title VI, Title VII
Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color or national origin under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
Title VII prohibits discrimination in employment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal law enforcement agency that enforces laws against workplace discrimination.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
apportionment of voters in districts in such a way as to give an unfair advantage to one racial or ethnic group or political party
a practice in which banks refuse to make loans to people living in certain geographic locations