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Microbiology Lab Final

Results, parts of experiment, and questions
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fungi
mold, fuzzy, yellow
bacteria
white flat spots
what microbes dominate the air
what microbes dominate the air: white bacteria flat spots
importance of aseptic technique
importance of aseptic technique: to keep unwanted microorganisms from contaminating sterile materials
total magnification
objective lens x ocular lens= ?
scan TM
4 x 10
low power TM
10 x 10
high dry power TM
40 x 10
oil immersion TM
100 x 10
high dry power vs low power
high dry power vs low power: high dry power is used for smaller objects and uses fine focus lens. Lowe power is used for larger objects and uses coarse focus lens.
how does loss of light affect the resolution
how does loss of light affect the resolution: it decreases the resolution or clarity
what is the purpose of immersion oil
what is the purpose of immersion oil: to keep the light from refracting and increase the resolution
what two things can be adjusted to control the amount of light passing into a specimen
what two things can be adjusted to control the amount of light passing into a specimen: light intensity adjuster and iris diaphragm
describe how to properly care for a microscope after immersion oil has been used
describe how to properly care for a microscope after immersion oil has been used: remove immersion oil by using a drop of isopropanol (70%) on lens paper- t his should be done right before microscope is put away.
bacillus
E. Coli morphology?
single cell
E. coli arrangement?
bacillus
Bacillus morphology?
streptobacillus
Bacillus arrangement?
why must we stain bacteria before examining them with a microscope
why must we stain bacteria before examining them with a microscope: most bacteria lack natural pigmentation, cells are difficult to visualize without first applying a stain
what component of a stain gives bacteria their color
what component of a stain gives bacteria their color: chromophore group
what advantage does knowing t he morphology and arrangement of a culture provide
what advantage does knowing t he morphology and arrangement of a culture provide: Each bacterium is best treated with different antibiotics based on the cell's morphology and arrangement. A physican can use this knowledge to diagnose the infectious organism and successfully prescribe a course of antibiotic therapy
Why must you use water when preparing a smear from a solid culture
Why must you use water when preparing a smear from a solid culture: The water helps to spread the culture over the glass and produces an even and more dilute density
gram-positive
Bacillus gram reaction?
gram-negative
E. Coli reaction?
differential stain
A method to distinguish between different types of bacteria, often based on color differences
how can the age of the cell culture affect the results of a gram stain
how can the age of the cell culture affect the results of a gram stain: Older cultures begin to lose the ability to retain the primary dye. Aging of the cells tends to make them become gram negative even though they are not (24 hours old or younger)
which is the most critical step in the gram staining procedure
which is the most critical step in the gram staining procedure: alcohol decolorizor because that is what you use to be able to tell between gram-positive and negative
how can the results of a gram stain on a bacterial culture help a physician decide which antibiotic to use against the bacterium
how can the results of a gram stain on a bacterial culture help a physician decide which antibiotic to use against the bacterium: if the bacterial culture is gram-positive, penicillin should be given
no
Can a bacterial cell produce more than one spore?
why is heat required to stain endospores
why is heat required to stain endospores: heat is required because you have to penetrate the cell wall
what is the advantage to the bacteria to produce endospores
what is the advantage to the bacteria to produce endospores: When conditions are poor, the bacterial produces endospores, a "sleeping stage", and then when the conditions are right again the endospore is released
yes
can bacteria survive with a capsule?
what are the advantages of a capsule to bacteria cells
what are the advantages of a capsule to bacteria cells: capsules help resistance and form protection
blue
After performing the Acid Fast Stain what is the color of cells lacking mycolic acid?
red
Acid Fast Cells are what color? They have mycolic acid
blue
Non-acid fast are what color? They lack mycolic acid
when performing a streak plate why is it necessary to flame the loop between each streak pattern
when performing a streak plate why is it necessary to flame the loop between each streak pattern: if you do not flame, you end up with too much bacteria
complex media
It is a media for culturing bacteria that contains nutrient-rich substances such as yeast extract
defined media
Composed of designated amounts of specific compounds; the exact contents are known
how can you confirm that your isolated colony came from a single type of bacteria cell
how can you confirm that your isolated colony came from a single type of bacteria cell: If you use the streak plate method you are able to drop the cells one at a time and this will divide and form colonies.
colony
Bacterial finally form a visible mass of growth on the agar surface derived from the original single organism. This visible mass of growth on the agar is called a WHAT?
streak plate method
isolating colonies (one type of bacteria)
primary goal of selective media
primary goal of selective media: it inhibits the growth of a certain group of microbes or alternatively supports the growth of very few microbes
Explain why a pH inhibitor can be useful in determining whether or not fermentation of a substrate has occurred
Explain why a pH inhibitor can be useful in determining whether or not fermentation of a substrate has occurred: a pH indicator allows the differentiation between organisms that ferment a substrate to acid versus an organism incapable of fermenting the compound
why, particularly in clinical laboratories, are selectively differential mediums employed most often
why, particularly in clinical laboratories, are selectively differential mediums employed most often: Because time is of the essence to diagnose and identify pathogenic microbes
why must sterile collection containers for specimens be used
why must sterile collection containers for specimens be used: to prevent contamination during further handling and transport of the specimen
why might it be necessary to use a transport medium
why might it be necessary to use a transport medium: it is added to the specimen to increase the chances of pathogen viability
clean and catch mid stream collection technique
Used for Urine. Instruct the patient to void a small amount of urine, stop and position the sample collection cup, then release more urine into the vessel directly
stool
food poisoning
sputum
pneumonia
skin, throat, large intestine, urethral/anal opening, vaginal opening
List 5 ways in which an individual acquires normal flora
why would the age of an individual influence the structure of the normal flora community
why would the age of an individual influence the structure of the normal flora community: As a host's age increases, changes in hormones and other body secretions occur and can influence the microbial community
DNA
How does UV light infect bacteria? It destroys the bacteria's WHAT?
why are bacterial endospores more resistant to UV light than vegetative cells
why are bacterial endospores more resistant to UV light than vegetative cells: Endospores have a capsule
autoclaving
Would incineration or autoclaving be an effective form of control on metal objects?
autoclaving
Would incineration or autoclaving be an effective form of control on plastic materials?
autoclaving
How is culture media sterilized prior to use?
antibiotic
A metabolic product of one organism that, in very small amounts, is detrimental or inhibitory to microorganisms
streptomycin in E. Coli
Which antibiotic was the most effective against the bacteria you plated?
soap
More bacteria on plate, which means more bacteria is coming off your hand. More bacteria on plate with soap. Soap removes bacteria from skin, it does not kill bacteria.
EMB
Besides MacConkey Agar, what other medias would be useful for isolating E. Coli (gram -) from a stool sample? This media inhibits gram +