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Automotive information ASVAB
Terms in this set (48)
Generates power to drive the vehicles wheels and various accessories
Removes excess heat from engine
Circulates motor oil through the engine to reduce friction and make the engine run smoothly
Ensures that correct amounts of air and fuel are available for efficient combustion in the engine
Generates and time the spark that initiates combustion
Forms a pipeline for waste gases to be removed from the engine and then dissipated to the open atmosphere
Emission control system
Helps limit toxic vehicle emissions
Includes starting charging and lighting and accessory systems
Controls all aspects of vehicle operation, including engine, drive train, brakes, and suspension
Transmits power from the engine to the vehicles drive wheels
Suspension and steering
Controls the vehicles drive quality and handling
Stops the vehicle safely and predictable
Internal combustion engines
Used in most cars. Fuel is burned internally and the resulting heat is used directly to power the engine. Convert the chemical energy in the air fuel mix into heat energy and this is then converted into mechanical energy
Forms the framework for the engine cylinders and reciprocating assembly
Cylindrically shaped object with a solid crown on top that moves up and down in the engines cylinders. Hot gases from the combustion of the air-fuel mixture push on the piston to do the actual work
Forms a guide for the piston to move in. Allows the piston to move up and down as the engine completes its cycle
Seal the piston to the cylinder and prevent combustion gases from leaking past. Oil rings prevent oil from the engine crankcase from making its way into the combustion chamber
Connects the piston to the connecting rod and forms a pivot point for the small end of the connecting rod to move on
Connects the piston/wrist pin assembly to the engines crankshaft. The large end of the connecting rod attaches to the crankshaft on the connecting rod journal
Converts the linear motion of the piston into rotary motion, which can then be used to power a vehicle or drive an accessory
Located above the piston, it houses the combustion chamber, the intake and exhaust valves, and the intake and exhaust ports
Located in the cylinder head directly above the piston, it is where the actual combustion of the air-fuel mixture takes place
Allows air fuel mixture to be drawn into the combustion chamber. When closed, it must deal the combustion chamber from the intake port
Allows waste gases to be removed from the combustion chamber. When closed, it must deal the combustion chamber from exhaust port
Responsible for the opening and closing of the engines intake and exhaust valve. Turns at one half the speed of the crankshaft
Rapid burning of an air fuel mix
Four stroke cycle
Most internal combustion engines utilize this. Takes for strokes of a piston to complete one cycle of events. Requires two complete revolutions of the crankshaft to complete one cycle of events.
Piston is at TDC and the intake valve is beginning to open. When piston reaches BDC the intake valve is almost closed
Piston starts upward stroke. Both engine valves are closed and the gases in the cylinder are forced into a smaller space as the piston goes toward TDC
Where all the engines power is generated. Just before TDC, the spark plug fires and ignites the air fuel mix, starting a flame that then travels across the combustion chamber. Flame heats gases in combustion chamber and they push on the piston as it goes to TDC and continues the downward stroke toward BDC
Just before BDC, the exhaust valve starts to open and the engine begins its fourth and final stroke. Gases are now spent and must be purged from the engine.
Simplest cylinder arrangement. Cylinders are lined up in a row.
Cylinder arrangement where the cylinders are on a horizontal plane and half and half facing away from each other with the crankshaft between them.
Cylinder design that is the most popular. This improves aerodynamic flow outside the vehicle bc the front of the vehicle can be lower due to smaller engine.
Another way to classify automotive engines.
Order in which cylinders fire. Common one is 1342
Much simpler and more reliable than gas engines. Do not incorporate a spark-ignition system. Uses heat of compression to ignite the air fuel mix. Diesels inject their fuel directly into the combustion chamber
Ideal ratio of air to fuel 14.7:1
Ideal is 14.7:1
When fuel is mixed with air by the fuel system, particles of fuel are atomized. Then they are directed into the air stream.
Too much air and not enough fuel. Burn slowly and hotter. Example- 17:1
Too much fuel not enough air. Burn quicker and cooler. Example- 10:1
Time in the combustion cycle that a spark is generated at the spark plug. Described relative to the position of the engines crankshaft. Example- BFTDC
Advancing the timing
Spark is adjusted to take place before the combustion cycle. (After for retarding the timing)
Takes place when combustion is started by a hot spot in the combustion chamber, such as a glowing spark plug
When air fuel mix explodes rather than burns. Often takes place when an engines air fuel mix is lean
Type of cooling system. Air is circulated over cooling find on the outside of the engine to remove excess heat
Type of cooling system. Uses a liquid coolant to pick up excess heat and then rejects that heat through a radiator
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ASVAB Electronics Information
ASVAB Electronics Information
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