230 terms

5th Grade SOL Review

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If you are given a picture and asked to make an OBSERVATION, you must choose the answer that includes only:
things that you can actually see with your own eyes, facts
Which is NOT an observation I could make while looking up at the sky?

"The sky is blue."
"A big, dark cloud is moving in"
"Soon it's going to rain."
"Soon it's going to rain" is not an observation. It is a prediction.
The mass of an object is:
the amount of matter in an object - - how heavy it is.
Given a 2-liter bottle of Coke, 2 liters is a measure of:
the volume of Coke - or how much space it takes up.
The capacity of a container is how much it can hold.

The capacity our large Coke bottle, even if it is empty, is:
2 liters
The capacity of an eyedropper would be a few:
milliliters
A milliliter of liquid is:
a few drops
The volume of liquid in a graduated cylinder might be 50:
ml or 50 milliliters
The volume of liquid in a beaker might be 300:
ml or 300 milliliters
One thousand milliliters equals:
1 liter
A liter is close in volume to a:
quart
An instrument used to measure mass is a:
balance
The mass of a paperclip or a sheet of paper is about:
1 gram or 1g
The mass of a book could be about:
1 kilogram or 1kg
1000 grams equal:
1 kilogram or 1 kg
Length and distance are measured in these metric units:
millimeters (mm) 10mm=1cm
centimeters (cm) 100cm=1m
1m or 1 meter
meters (m) 1000m=
1km or 1 kilometer
kilometers
(km)
Volume of a liquid or capacity of a container is measured in these metric units:
milliliters (mL)
Liters (L) 1000mL=
1 L or 1 liter
Mass is measured in these metric units:
grams (g) 1000g=1kg
Kilograms
kg
A centimeter is about as wide as your:
fingernail
The length of each of these dashes - - - is about:
1 or 2 millimeters (mm)
If your fingernail is one centimeter wide, how wide is it in millimeters?
10mm
10 millimeters
The distance from your waist to the floor could be about:
1 meter
1m
One-hundred centimeters equals:
1 meter
One thousand meters equals:
1 kilometer
1km
In an experiment to measure the how different types of soil affect tulip growth, you fill five identical pots with different types of soil and place a tulip bulb in each.

The independent variable in the experiment is the:
soil
The pots, tulip bulbs, water and amount of sunlight are should be the same for all of the pots. These are the:
constants
For accuracy, you perform the experiment many times. In the first three trials, the tulip in sandy soil grows only 10 cm tall before dying. The 4th trial, the tulip grows 15 cm tall and flowers.

Which result is unusual?
The 4th trial (15cm) because it is different from the others.
Objects in action have ______ energy.
kinetic
Potential energy is ________ energy.
stored
Due to the pull of gravity, the higher an object is off the ground, the more ____________ it has.
potential energy
When I hold a ball in the air, it has potential energy. When I let go, the ball starts to fall.

Potential energy changes to:
kinetic energy
There are many forms of energy. Energy caused by the movement of electrons is:
electrical energy
Energy stored in food, batteries and fossil fuels like coal and gasoline is:
chemical energy
Energy in moving or spinning objects like gears, car wheels, or joggers, is _______ energy:
mechanical
Machines make work easier and help us work more:
efficiently
The six simple machines are:
inclined plane
pulley
lever
screw
wedge
wheel & axle.
A combination of two more simple machines is a:
compound machine
Machines made of many compound machines are:
complex machines
An object that is sharp, like a knife, ax, or nail, is a:
wedge
Doorknobs, screwdrivers, and wheels of all sorts are:
wheel and axles
A seesaw, crowbar, shovel, and nutcracker are:
levers
A ramp, staircase, and ladder are:
inclined planes
A jar lid and corkscrew are:
screws
What simple machine is used to hoist a flag or raise window blinds?
pulley
A wheelbarrow, scissors, and a bicycle are:
compound machines
Simple machines with fulcrums (pivot points) are usually:
levers
These simple machines have ropes or chains.
pulleys
A wheelbarrow is a compound machine with a ____ and _____.
lever (the handles) and wheel and axle
A pair of scissors has:
a lever and wedges
Two objects rubbing together create:
friction
Friction resists or stops motion, and creates:
heat
Unless acted on by a force, objects in motion tend to stay in motion and objects at rest remain at rest.

This is the principal of:
inertia
It's harder to push a real truck than a toy truck because objects with more mass have:
more inertia
Which will light a bulb, an open or closed circuit?
A closed circuit
If your string of holiday lights goes dark when one little bulb burns out, the string of lights is a:
series circuit
This circuit has more than one pathway for the flow of electrical current. If one bulb burns the others will remain lit.

It is a:
Parallel circuit
Electrical energy moves easily through materials that are:
conductors
Wires are usual made from ____ because it conducts electricity well.
metal (often copper)
Material like rubber, plastic and wood do not conduct electricity well. They are:
insulators
like rubber coating on this electrical cord
Common dry-cell batteries usually have low:
voltage
(1.5v or 9v)
Magnets attract these metals:
iron
steel
cobalt
nickel
Iron filings place near a magnet can show the ________created by a magnetic field.
lines of force
Magnetism and _______ are very closely related.
electricity
An electric current creates a magnetic field, and a magnetic field creates an _________ .
electric current
If you wrap wire around a nail and run electricity through the wire, you have created an:
electromagnet

Unhooking the wire from the battery can turn the magnet off.
If you rub your feet on the carpet, or rub a balloon on a wool sweater, you may create:
static electricity
Static electricity occurs when negatively charged _____ are rubbed off of one surface and on to another.
electrons
Benjamin Franklin learned that lightning was a form of electricity. What kind of electricity?
static electricity
Who invented the light bulb?
Thomas Edison
Which plant part takes in water and nutrients?
the roots
Which part supports the plant and allows the movement of water and nutrients?
the stem
Which plant part makes food for the plant?
the leaves
The seed forms in the female reproductive part of the flower called the:
pistil
Pollen forms on the ends of the male reproductive parts of the flower called the:
stamen
The small leaves that form around the developing flower are the:
sepals
Pollen is transferred from the stamen to the pistil in a process called:
pollination
Most plants reproduce with seeds, but ferns and mosses reproduce with:
spores
Green plants produce their own food in a process called:
photosynthesis
To produce food, green plants use:
water
nutrients
sunlight
carbon dioxide (from the air)
chlorophyll
Plants are green because of:
chlorophyll
Many plants enter a period of ______ in the winter, which is similar to hibernation for animals.

During this period most of their normal activities stop.
dormancy
An organism's _____ provides food, water, shelter and space.
habitat
All of the organisms in a forest make up a _______, and all of the organisms in a pond make up a pond _______.
forest community; pond community
All energy comes from _____ , and then cycles through the food webs to all of the animals in the community.
the sun
_______ get energy directly from the sun and use it to make food.
Plants
Because plants produce their own food, they are called ___________ .
producers
84. Other organism do not get their energy from the sun. They get their energy by:
eating plants, or eating animals that have eaten plants.
Organisms that get their energy from eating plants or other animals are called:
consumers
The sun's energy cycles through the ecosystem in this order:
sun->producers->consumers>decomposers
All of the interrelated food chains in an ecosystem make up a:
food web
Food chains and food webs always start with a:
plant
The food chain starts with a producer (a plant) and ends with a:
decomposer
Decomposers like ______ break down organisms and recycle them back to the nutrient pool.
fungi
All of the living and nonliving things in an environment make up:
an ecosystem
Everything in an ecosystem depends on everything else. Humans often destroy ecosystems by:
polluting ponds, chopping down forests, etc.
The specific place an organism has in the food web is the organism's:
niche
The niche of every organism is different, and an organism's niche changes as it grows.

A niche is the organism's role in the community, and includes:
what it does, what it eats, and what eats it.
All organisms have _________ that allow it to survive in its environment.
Structural adaptations are __________ that help an organism survive,
long beaks
webbed feet
camouflage
body parts
Behavioral adaptations are things that organisms do to survive. Examples of behavioral adaptations are:
migration
hibernation
instincts
The measure of the amount of heat energy in the atmosphere is:
temperature
The amount of moisture in the air is:
humidity
The weight of the air causes:
air pressure
101. Air circulates around the Earth in big chunks called:
air masses
The boundary between two air masses is called a:
front
A warm front occurs when a warm air mass pushes out a cold mass. A warm front usually brings:
steady rain or drizzle followed by warmer temperatures.
A cold front occurs when a cold air mass pushes out a warm air mass. A cold front usually brings:
a short period of heavy rain or thunder, followed by clear colder weather.
A falling barometer often means:
What kind of cloud brings stormy weather, thunderstorms, and sometimes even tornadoes?
Cumulonimbus
Puffy white clouds that look like cotton balls are:
cumulus clouds
High, thin, wispy clouds are:
cirrus clouds
Which cloud forms a gray blanket over the sky, often bringing steady rain or drizzle?
stratus cloud
This instrument measures air pressure:
barometer
This instrument measures wind speed:
anemometer
This instrument measures moisture in the air:
hygrometer
This instrument measures precipitation:
rain gauge
These severe storms usually form over water in the Caribbean:
hurricanes
Earth is one of ____ planets that revolve around the sun.
eight
Earth is the ______ planet from the sun.
third
Venus, Mercury, Earth and Mars are the :
rocky inner planets
How far is the Earth from the sun?
150 million km
What does the Earth have that allows it to support life?
water and an oxygen rich atmosphere
How does the Earth's atmosphere protect the Earth?
It blocks out most of the sun's damaging rays.
Ancient Greeks like Aristotle and Ptolemy believed _________ was the center of our solar system, and the planets and the sun revolved around us.
the Earth
Copernicus and Galileo tried to convince the world that ________ was actually the center of the solar system, and all of the planets revolve around around it, and not around the Earth.
the sun
The NASA Apollo missions sent astronauts to the ______ .
the moon
About half of Virginia is considered to be in the Chesapeake Bay ________ because the surface water and all of the materials it carries drain into the Chesapeake Bay.
watershed
Much of Virginia is covered in ______, an important natural resource for Virginia.
forests
An important energy resource mined in the southwestern part of Virginia is ________ .
coal
Sound is a form of energy produced by:
vibrating matter
Sound travels in:
waves
3. The ______ of a sound is the number of vibration in a given time.
frequency
An object vibrating faster will have a higher frequency and a higher:
pitch
Sound is a ______ wave.
compression
The distance between compressions, or between the crests of two waves is the:
wavelength
What kind of matter does sound travel through fastest?
solids
Sound travels slower through gases than through liquids and solids because the molecules in gases are:
farthest apart
Bats and other animals can hear sounds that are at a ___________________________. These are sounds humans cannot hear.
high frequency
Musical instruments _____ to produce sounds.
vibrate
An instrument that uses sound echoes to measure see the ocean floor or underwater objects is a:
sonar
All of the colors of visible light combine to form
white light
The wavelengths of light from longest to shortest are:

red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet.

To remember this we use:
Roy G. Biv
The color light with the longest wavelength is:
red
The color light with the shortest wavelength is:
violet
The color light with the shortest wavelength (violet) is ____________ moving than the longer wavelength (red).
faster
Light travels in straight paths called:
rays
Light travels fastest in a
a vacuum or empty space
When light bounces off an object, it is:
reflected
When light bends, it is:
refracted
When light passes through an object, it is:
transmitted
Light passes easily through a window because the glass is:
transparent
Some light can pass through wax paper. Wax paper is:
translucent
Light can't travel through a wall. A wall is:
opaque
When white light passes through a ________ , the different wavelengths bend at different angles, so we see a rainbow of colors.
prism
A concave and convex lenses bend or _____ light.
refract
There are over 100 pure substances, called:
elements
The smallest part of an element is an:
atom
When two of more elements combine to make a completely new substance, it is called a:
compound
The smallest part of compound is a:
molecule
H2O is a compound known as:
water
NaCl (Sodium Chloride) is a compound called:
salt
Substances that are combined but can be separated again are called:
mixtures
A mixture in which one substance dissolves in another is called a:
solution
Sugar mixed into water is a_______ because if the water evaporated, the sugar would remain in the container.
solution
a very well mixed mixture
The three states of matter are:
solid
liquid,
gas
If you heat a solid, it may:
melt into a liquid
If you heat a liquid, it may:
evaporate into a gas
If you cool a gas, it may _______ into a liquid.
condense
If you cool a liquid, it may ______ into a solid.
freeze
Clouds, dew, water droplets on the outside of a glass on a hot day, are all caused by:
condensation
When you heat matter the particles that make it up
move faster and usually spread apart
In a solid, the molecules are:
tightly packed and barely moving
In a gas the molecules are:
moving fast and spread apart
Living things are made of:
cells
Using a ______ you can see many parts of a cell.
microscope
Plant cells tend to be:
rectangular
The control center of the cell is the:
nucleus
The jellylike substance in a cell is the:
cytoplasm
The water and waste storage sacs in a cell are called:
vacuoles
The outer layer of an animal cell is the:
cell membrane
Plant cell have cell membranes but they have another stiff outer layer called the:
cell wall
Plants cell also have _____ which hold chlorophyll needed for photosynthesis.
chloroplasts
Name the 5 kingdoms of living things
Plants, Animals, Fungi, Monera, Protists
To which kingdom to bacteria belong?
Monera
To which kingdom to mushrooms belong?
Fungi
To which kingdom do most algae belong?
Protists
Plants that special tubes to transport water and nutrients
Vascular
Plants that do not have special veins to transport food and water are:
non-vascular
Name a non-vascular plant.
moss
Animals with backbones are:
vertebrates
Snakes, lizards and fish are:
vertebrates
Clams, squid, worms and insects are:
invertebrates
The ocean covers how much of the Earth?
70%
The shallower edges of the ocean floor make up the
continental shelf
Salinity of the ocean varies from place to place. Salinity means
saltiness
Wind patterns and different water densities cause
ocean currents
As the depth of the ocean increases, what else increases?
water pressure
As the depth of the ocean increases, what decreases?
temperature and the amount of light
An ocean current which carries warm water from the equator to Europe is:
The Gulf Stream
The greatest variety of ocean life is in the shallowest part of the ocean, above the:
continental shelf
These tiny plant-like organisms produce much of the Earth's oxygen and serve as the basis of the ocean ecosystem
Phytoplankton
Phytoplankton, like other plants, need sunlight for photosynthesis, and therefore live :
On the ocean's surface
The deepest parts of the ocean are:
trenches
It is mostly the pull of the moon's gravity that causes
tides
Underwater mountains caused by plate movements are:
mid-ocean ridges
Three types of rock are:
sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous
Over a period of time, layers of sediment are pressed together to form these types of rocks.
Sedimentary
When molten rock or magma cools below the Earth's surface or cools after erupting from a volcano as lava, this type of rock is formed.
Igneous rock
82. Rocks formed from other types of rocks by intense heat and pressure deep within the Earth are called:
Metamorphic rocks
Sedimentary rocks often contain these remains of organisms which tell us a lot about life and Earth in the past.
fossils
Scientific evidence indicates the Earth is how old?
4.6 billion years old
The Earth's surface is constantly changing due to heat and pressure within the Earth and weathering and erosion at the surface.

These processes constantly change rock from one type to another in a cycle called:
The Rock Cycle
The two layers of the Earth that are composed mostly of rocky material are:
The crust and mantle
The layers composed mostly of iron and nickel
Inner and Outer core
Heat energy causes movement of material within the Earth. Large, continent-sized blocks that move slowly about the Earth's surface due to this heat energy are called:
plates
89.Most earthquakes and volcanoes are located at the boundary of the plates, called:
faults
Mountain ranges, including the Appalachian mountains, mid-ocean ridges and trenches are caused by:
Plate movements
Rocks on the Earth's surface are constantly being broken down by chemical processes, weather, glaciers and even tree roots. Rocks are broken into smaller pieces in a process called:
weathering
Weather rock material, sand and soil can be moved by water and wind in a process called:
erosion
Roots hold soil in place. How can soil erosion be prevented?
planting trees and other vegetation
Mountains are usually caused by:
plate movements
Mountains and volcanoes usually form on the _____ between two plates, when the plates push together or split apart
(convergent and divergent boundaries) boundaries
Plates that slide against each other are called sliding boundaries - They cause:
earthquakes.
Animals with no backbones are called
invertebrates
Light Travels faster than
Sound