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PHY-105 CHPT 01 HRW
Terms in this set (26)
Who proposed the geocentric view that was accepted and used for more than 18 centuries?
Copernicus proposed a heliocentric model for the solar system primarily because ________.
it was much simpler than the Ptolemaic model
What is the name given to the phenomenon in which the apparent motion of the superior planets sometimes reverses?
How did Ptolemy's model explain the retrograde motions of the planets?
Planets orbit in small circles called epicycles, and the epicycle is orbiting the Earth in a larger orbit called a deferent. This caused the planet to have a "looping" motion as seen from Earth.
How did Copernicus' model explain the retrograde motions of the planets?
Planets orbit the Sun at different speeds. When an inner, faster-moving planet "passes" a slower outer one, the slower planet appears to move backwards.
Galileo Galilei was the first scientist to perform experiments in order to test his ideas. He was also the first astronomer to systematically observe the skies with a telescope. Galileo made four key observations that challenged the widely accepted philosophical beliefs on which the geocentric model was based, thus providing support for the heliocentric model. From the following list of observations, which are the key observations made by Galileo that challenged widespread philosophical beliefs about the solar system?
1.)Jupiter has orbiting moons.
2.)Venus goes through a full set of phases.
3.)The Moon has mountains, valleys, and craters
4.)The Sun has sunspots and rotates on its axis
Johannes Kepler used decades of Tycho Brahe's observational data to formulate an accurate description of planetary motion. Kepler spent almost 30 years of his life trying to develop a simple description of planetary motion based on a heliocentric model that fit Tycho's data. What conclusion did Kepler eventually come to that revolutionized the heliocentric model of the solar system?
Kepler determined that the planetary orbits are elliptical
Astronomers have made many observations since the days of Galileo and Kepler to confirm that the Sun really is at the center of the solar system, and that the planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits. Which observation(s) could you make today that Galileo and Kepler could not have made to confirm that the heliocentric model is correct?
1. Transit of an extrasolar planet
2. Stellar parallax in nearby stars
3. Doppler shifts in stellar spectra of nearby stars
Galileo's observations of the phases of Venus ________.
showed that Venus had to orbit the Sun and not the Earth
Earth is located at one _____ of the Moon's orbit
According to Kepler's second law, Jupiter will be traveling most slowly around the Sun when at _____.
Earth orbits in the shape of a/an ______ around the sun
The mathematical form of Kepler's third law measures the period in years and the _______ in AU's
According to Kepler's second law, Pluto will be traveling fastest around the Sun when at _____
the extent to which Mars' orbit differs from a perfect circle is called its _____
Kepler's third law is best expressed as ________.
P 2 ~ a 3
How does orbital speed at aphelion compare to the speed at perihelion?
Kepler's second law of planetary motion states that a planet in orbit around the Sun will do which of the following?
Sweep out equal areas in equal times
What was the greatest contribution of Tycho Brahe to astronomy?
He amassed a large number of precise measurements of stellar and planetary positions in the sky.
What two measurable properties directly tell us the size and shape of a planet's orbit?
Semimajor axis and eccentricty.
How has the length of the astronomical unit been most accurately determined?
Radar was reflected off the surfaces of nearby planets whose distances are known in astronomical units.
A major flaw in Copernicus's model was that it still had
A calculation of how long it takes a planet to orbit the Sun would be most closely related to Kepler's
third law of planetary motion.
An asteroid with an orbit lying entirely inside Earth's
has an orbital semimajor axis of less than 1 AU.
Use Newton's law of gravity to calculate the force of gravity between you and Earth. Convert your answer, which will be in newtons, to pounds using the conversion 4.45 N ≡ 1 pound. What do you normally call this force?
By multiplying my weight in Kg times 9.8 I found out the force between me and the Earth is 511.168 newtons, or in pounds, 115, which we call our weight.
The minor planet Ceres has a semi-major axis distance of 2.8 AU. What is its orbital period in years?
da = 4.7 AU
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