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APUSH Period 6 (Part 2): 1865-1898
Terms in this set (40)
Idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
A technique used by John D. Rockefeller. An act of joining or consolidating with ones competitors to create a monopoly. Rockefeller was excellent with using this technique to monopolize certain markets. It is responsible for the majority of his wealth.
Practice where a single entity controls the entire process of a product, from the raw materials to distribution
Refers to the industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages. They also drove their competitors out of business by selling their products cheaper than it cost to produce it. Then when they controlled the market, they hiked prices high above original price.
Sherman Anti- Trust Act, 1890
This Act outlawed trusts & any contracts in restraint of trade & fined violators 5000 & jail. But the loosely worded act failed to define trust or restraint trade.
Buying and using products because of the "statement" they make about social position
A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Knights of Labor, 1869
One of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century; founded by six Philadelphia tailors and led by Uriah S. Stephens. Its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories.
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
July, 1877 - A large number of railroad workers went on strike because of wage cuts. After a month of strikes, President Hayes sent troops to stop the rioting. The worst railroad violence was in Pittsburgh, with over 40 people killed by militia men.
Haymarket Square, 1886
Demands for an 8 hour working day in Chicago. Demonstration by a group of anarchists cause a crowd of 1,500 people. Bomb exploded & police opened fire. Anarchists were tired on court.
Homestead Strike, 1892
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
Pullman Strike, 1894
Workers rebelled because the Pullman Palace Car Company cut wages by 1/3 and the American Federation of Labor refused to support the strikers. Military action was needed in order to keep mail delivery on track.
1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
American Federation of Labor (AFL), 1886
1886; Founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Labor activist who was a member of the Knights of Labor union and who used publicity techniques to create awareness of the plight of mine workers and child laborers.
The New South
The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longer be dependent on now-outlawed slave labor or predominantly upon the raising of cotton, but rather a South which was also industrialized and part of a modern national economy
Crop-lien system (Sharecropping, tenant farming)
System that allowed farmers to get more credit. They used harvested crops to pay back their loans.
U.S. Fish Commission, 1871
An agency of the United States Government created in 1871 to investigate, promote, and preserve the fisheries of the United States
Sierra Club, 1892
Founded in 1982, John Muir elected first President. Dedicated to preserving wildness of the Western Landscape. In its first conservation campaign, Muir leads effort to defeat a proposed reduction in the boundaries of Yosemite National Park.
Department of the Interior
Protects and manages public lands such as natural parks and historic sites
Farming cooperatives, farmers share supplies
A series of laws passed in several midwestern states in the late 1860s and early 1870s. The main goal was to regulate rising fare prices of railroad and grain elevator companies.
A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Colored Farmers' Alliance, 1886
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
Las Gorras Blancas (The White Caps), 1889
Vigilante organizations arising in the late 19th century, made up of Mexican-American ranchers. They tore up railroad tracks and attacked those who fenced public land.
People's (Populist) Party, 1891
Created by farmers' alliances. The peoples' party supported the abolition of national banks and the government ownership of railroads
Omaha Platform, 1892
The Populists met here in Nebraska to create a platform that would appeal to farmers throughout the nation. The platform stressed inflation, $50 per person in circulating currency, a postal savings bank, and a graduated income tax. The Populists also wanted government ownership and operation of railroads, communications, and utilities. They advocated the direct election of senators, a one term limit for presidents; tariff reductions; restriction of immigration; an eight-hour work day; and implementation of an Australian ballot, an initiative, and referendum.
A monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold
Political issue involving the unlimited coinage of silver, supported by farmers and William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan, 1896
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
Immigrants who came to the United States before the 1880s; most were from northern Europe, melting pot
Immigrants who had come to the US after the 1880s from Southern and Eastern Europe, salad bowl and ethnic islands
An immigrant receiving station that opened in 1892, where immigrants were given a medical examination and only allowed in if they were healthy
According to Piaget, the process by which new ideas and experiences are absorbed and incorporated into existing mental structures and behaviors
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