Terms in this set (11)
What does PCR stand for?
polymerase chain reaction
What happens to a double stranded DNA molecule when it "denatures"?
When the DNA molecule denatures it has been heated to separate the strands. Splits at the base pairs.
How does this process occur?
This process occurs by heating up a tube of DNA dissolved in water. The heat causes the base pairs to split. 95 degrees Celsius.
What conditions must exist for the DNA to "renature" after the molecule has denatured?
bring the temperature back down
What are "primers" and what is their role in the PCR process?
Primers are short pieces of DNA that border (define) target sequence.
What kind of biochemical is DNA polymerase?
It's a protein-enzyme. Enzymes control chemical reactions in your body.
Why is DNA polymerase essential for PCR to be successful?
The DNA polymerase copies a cell's DNA before it divides in two. The DNA polymerase attaches at the end of the primer and adds nucleotides. Brings in nucleotides and puts them in the correct order.
PCR requires the use of a special DNA polymerase. What is the name of this special molecule
It requires the use of a bacteria called Taq Polymerase. Heat stable (hi-heat temp)
Why is it necessary to use this particular enzyme?
It's necessary to use this particular enzyme because it can survive near boiling, hi-heat temperatures.
In your own words, identify and explain the 3 steps that are necessary to complete the PCR
1.DNA strands come apart at the base pairs- 95 degrees
2.Primers attach to the end of the target sequence. 50-60 degrees
3.Taq polymerase attaches to primers and adds bases to (extends) the open DNA strands. 72 degrees
Describe 4 situations in which PCR could be used by scientists or medical doctors.
1.one has genetic disease mutations
4.Replicate a gene or make a protein from a replicated gene
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