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Study guide for Chapters 26, 27, and 18

Study guide for Chapters 26, 27, and 18 in Dr Delfert's class
STUDY
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inhibiting the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary.
Consumption of alcohol increases urine production by

decreasing the blood pressure.
causing retention of sodium ions.
inhibiting the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary.
stimulating the release of aldosterone from the adrenals.
ADH production increases.
The collecting duct becomes more permeable to water when

colloid osmotic pressure increases.
ADH production increases.
plasma osmolality decreases.
aldosterone production decreases
all of the above
Urine formation involves

filtration of the plasma.
reabsorption from the filtrate.
secretion into the filtrate.
all of the above
proximal convoluted tubule
Most water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the

proximal convoluted tubule.
descending loop of Henle.
ascending loop of Henle.
distal convolute tubule.
a pressure gradient.
Filtrate flows through the nephron because of

gravity.
a pressure gradient.
a concentration gradient.
peristaltic contractions.
peritubular capillary.
The vasa recta is a specialized portion of the

glomulerus.
afferent arteriole.
efferent arteriole.
peritubular capillary
1, 3, 2, 4
Trace the path of a red blood cell from the renal artery to the glomerulus:
(1) interlobar artery (2) interlobular artery (3) arcuate artery (4) afferent arteriole

1, 2, 3, 4
1, 4, 2, 3
1, 3, 2, 4
2, 1, 3, 4
collecting duct.
Urine drains from the nephron into the calyces through the

loop of Henle.
collecting duct.
distal convoluted tubule.
proximal convoluted tubule
pressure gradient.
Formation of filtrate depends on a

pressure gradient.
concentration gradient.
volume gradient.
temperature gradient.
potassium ions
Which of the following are most likely to be actively secreted into the distal convoluted tubule?

potassium ions.
chloride ions.
bicarbonate.
amino acids.
peristaltic contractions
Urine flows through the ureters to the bladder as the result of

gravity.
a pressure gradient.
a concentration gradient.
peristaltic contractions.
renal fraction.
The part of the cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is the

renal fraction.
filtration fraction.
clearance fraction.
glomerular flow rate
renal pelvis.
The ureter expands into the substance of the kidney as the

hilum.
renal pelvis.
renal capsule.
renal pyramid
distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts
Some lung cancers secrete large amounts of ADH. This causes increased water reabsorption in the

proximal convoluted tubule.
loop of Henle.
distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts.
calyces.
each nephron has at least two capillary networks.
One feature of renal blood circulation that makes it unique is that

there is a double set of venules.
blood flows from arterioles into venules.
blood flows from venules into arterioles.
each nephron has at least two capillary networks
proximal and distal tubules.
Hydrogen ions are secreted into the filtrate by both the

proximal and distal tubules.
collecting duct and Bowman's capsule.
loop of Henle and the distal tubule.
proximal tubule and the loop of Henle.
80%
By the time filtrate reaches the tip of the loop of Henle, _____ of the filtrate volume has been reabsorbed.

65%
75%
80%
95%
increases thirst.
Increased osmolality of the ECF

increases thirst.
inhibits ADH.
increases renin secretion.
increases aldosterone secretion.
glomerulus
Which of the following structures is a capillary?

glomerulus
loop of Henle
collecting duct
Bowman's capsule
proximal convoluted tubule.
The renal corpuscle connects to the

loop of Henle.
collecting duct.
distal convoluted tubule.
proximal convoluted tubule
the blood pressure in the afferent arteriole decreases.
The kidneys produce renin when

the urine becomes acidic.
the peritubular capillaries dilate.
the blood pressure in the afferent arteriole decreases.
sodium chloride concentration in the distal tubule increases
have long loops of Henle.
The juxtamedullary nephrons

have long loops of Henle.
are found next to the renal capsule.
comprise 85% of all nephrons.
have their renal corpuscles located in the medulla.
osmosis.
Water reabsorption by the renal tubules uses

active transport.
cotransport.
solvent drag.
osmosis.
3, 5, 1, 2, 4
Indicate the order in which urea molecules move to maintain the medullary concentration gradient.
(1) ascending limb (2) distal convoluted tubule (3) interstitial fluid (4) collecting duct (5) descending limb

2, 5, 1, 4, 3
1, 3, 5, 2, 4
3, 5, 1, 2, 4
4, 2, 1, 3, 5
protein
Plasma contains a much greater concentration of _____ than the glomerular filtrate.

urea
water
protein
sodium ions
increased plasma osmolality
Which of the following situations increases the number of action potentials to the supraoptic region of the hypothalamus?

increased blood velocity
decreased renin production
increased plasma osmolality
decreased aldosterone secretion
podocytes, capillary epithelium, and basement membrane.
The filtration membrane consists of the

capillary epithelium, podocytes, and macula densa.
podocytes, basement membrane, and macula densa.
basement membrane, capillary epithelium, and macula densa.
podocytes, capillary epithelium, and basement membrane.
1560 ml.
If daily water output from the body is 2600 ml, you would expect the daily urine output to be

1040 ml.
1300 ml.
1560 ml.
1820 ml.
vary in their permeability to water relative to the amounts of ADH present.
The collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules

reabsorb glucose.
collect filtrate from Bowman's capsule.
actively transport sodium ions but not chloride ions.
vary in their permeability to water relative to the amounts of ADH present.
both a and c
The visceral layer of Bowman's capsule

is part of the filtration membrane.
is called endothelium.
contains podocytes.
both a and b
both a and c
gaps between the podocyte processes in the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule.
Filtration slits is the name given to the

points where the afferent arterioles enter the renal corpuscle.
openings between the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries.
gaps between the podocyte processes in the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule.
basement membrane of the glomerular endothelium.
50 mmHg
If the following hypothetical conditions exist in the nephron, calculate the net filtration pressure. glomerular capillary pressure = 80 mmHg blood colloid osmotic pressure = 20 mmHg capsular colloid pressure = 10 mmHg

110 mmHg
90 mmHg
50 mmHg
30 mmHg
constriction of afferent and efferent arterioles.
Autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of

constriction of afferent and efferent arterioles.
sympathetic stimulation.
aldosterone secretion.
ADH secretion.
nephrons.
The structural and functional units of the kidney are called

nephrons.
renal papillae.
renal pyramids.
renal columns.
a high medullary concentration gradient.
The ability of the kidney to concentrate urine depends on

proximal tubule reabsorption.
a high medullary concentration gradient.
osmosis.
rapid removal of filtrate.
all of the above
To calculate plasma clearance of any substance, it is necessary to know the

quantity of urine produced per minute.
concentration of the cleared substance in the urine.
concentration of the cleared substance in the blood.
all of the above
collects excess water and solutes from the medullary interstitial fluid.
The vasa recta

supplies blood to the glomerulus.
alters the cortical solute gradient.
collects excess water and solutes from the medullary interstitial fluid.
collects water and solutes reabsorbed from the proximal tubule.
juxtaglomerular cells and the macula densa.
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is composed of

juxtaglomerular cells and the macula densa.
podocytes and juxtaglomerular cells.
the macula densa and the filtration membrane.
juxtaglomerular cells and the filtration membrane.
both a and b
The filtrate that drips from the renal papillae into the calyces as urine

has a higher concentration of waste products (urea) than the original filtrate.
may have lost up to 99% of its original volume.
both a and b
neither a nor b
increasing net filtration pressure.
Decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure affects renal function by

increasing net filtration pressure.
increasing capsular pressure.
increasing glomerular capillary pressure.
increasing blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.
uncontrollable micturition.
With aging, a loss of inhibitory action potentials to the sacral region of the spinal cord results in

increased bladder capacity.
voluntary micturition.
continuous dribbling of urine.
uncontrollable micturition.
the excess remains in the filtrate.
When the tubular maximum for a substance is exceeded,

more of the substance is reabsorbed.
more of the substance is actively secreted.
less of the substance is filtered in the renal corpuscle.
the excess remains in the filtrate.
ureter.
Urine is carried from the kidneys to the urinary bladder by the

urethra.
ureter.
calyces.
renal columns.
potassium and chloride are cotransported with sodium across the apical membrane
In the ascending limb of the loop of Henle,

water can easily enter or leave.
potassium and chloride are cotransported with sodium across the apical membrane.
calcium ions are actively transported across the basal membrane.
potassium is concentrated in the filtrate.
decreasing renin secretion.
When macula densa cells experience increased Na+ concentration in the filtrate, they respond by

increasing afferent arteriole constriction.
decreasing urine production.
decreasing renin secretion.
increasing aldosterone secretion
increased urine output.
Increased secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone results in

increased thirst.
increased urine output.
increased blood pressure.
increased osmolality of the extracellular fluid.
stimulates aldosterone secretion.
Angiotensin II

is a potent vasodilator.
stimulates aldosterone secretion.
is formed from angiotensin I by the action of renin.
acts on the collecting ducts to increase reabsorption of water.
PAH
Renal blood flow per minute can be calculated if you know the clearance calculation for ____ as well as the person's hematocrit.

ADH
PAH
inulin
aldosterone
180 liters
At the rate of 125 ml of filtrate/minute, estimate the amount of filtrate formed in 24 hours.

45 liters
90 liters
125 liters
180 liters
thiazide diuretics
Diuretics that inhibit sodium ion reabsorption are called

xanthines.
osmotic diuretics.
thiazide diuretics.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
all of these
Which of the following helps maintain a high solute concentration in the kidney medulla?

high urea concentration in medulla
active transport of solutes from ascending limb
the vasa recta
all of these
osmoreceptors.
Receptors sensitive to changes in the osmolality of extracellular fluid are the

baroreceptors.
chemoreceptors.
osmoreceptors.
pressoreceptors.
calcium levels
Stimulus for the secretion of parathyroid hormone is a decrease in serum

potassium levels.
calcium levels.
calcitonin levels.
phosphate levels
protein
One difference between the plasma and interstitial fluid is that the plasma has significantly more _____ than interstitial fluid.

protein
bicarbonate
chloride
water volume
hyperpolarization of cell membranes.
Decreased extracellular potassium levels cause

cells to become more excitable.
hyperpolarization of cell membranes.
more action potentials to be generated.
increased permeability of cell membranes
plasma
Which of the following fluid compartments contains the smallest volume of water?

plasma
interstitial compartment
intracellular compartment
extracellular compartment
higher sodium content than intracellular fluid.
Extracellular fluid has a

higher protein content than intracellular fluid.
higher potassium content that intracellular fluid.
higher sodium content than intracellular fluid.
higher magnesium content than intracellular fluid
aldosterone.
The primary regulator of plasma sodium concentration is

renin.
aldosterone.
antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
atrial natriuretic hormone.
kidney.
Renin is released by the

lungs.
kidney.
spleen.
liver.
aldosterone.
Potassium levels in the body are regulated by

ADH.
PTH.
calcitonin.
aldosterone
kidney.
The major route of excretion for sodium ions (under normal conditions) is the

skin.
kidney.
GI tract.
adrenal cortex
thirst.
Angiotensin II increases blood volume by stimulating

thirst.
vasodilatation.
water movement into the cells.
renal excretion of sodium.
bones.
Most of the calcium in the body is in the

bones.
plasma.
kidneys.
GI tract
a small 7-year-old female
Which of the following individuals would have the largest percentage of their bodyweight as water?

a small 7-year-old female
a lean 35-year-old male athlete
a chunky 52-year-old male athlete
a healthy 88-year-old male
osmosis
Water moves back and forth across the plasma membrane by the process of

osmosis.
filtration.
diffusion.
active transport.
increase aldosterone secretion
Which of the following will the body begin to do in order to compensate for hyperkalemia?

vasoconstriction of blood vessels
increase ADH secretion
increase aldosterone secretion
increase the release of atrial natriuretic hormone
baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to decrease ADH secretion
Elevated blood pressure under resting conditions results in increased urinary output because

baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to decrease ADH secretion.
levated blood pressure stimulates renin secretion.
the amount of angiotensin II formed is increased.
aldosterone levels increase.
urine production
A decrease in plasma osmolality would increase

ADH production.
plasma sodium levels.
renin production.
urine production.
metabolic alkalosis.
Ingesting large amounts of sodium bicarbonate can lead to

metabolic acidosis.
metabolic alkalosis.
respiratory acidosis.
respiratory alkalosis.
decreased urine volume
Which of the following is an example of water conservation by the body?

diarrhea
perspiration
decreased water intake
decreased urine volume
an increase in urine volume
Which of the following is most likely to happen to a group of students who relax by drinking a pitcher of their favorite beverage?

an increase in urine volume
an increase in urine osmolality
an increase in ADH production
increased aldosterone secretion
ADH levels decrease
In which of the following situations does one see large volumes of dilute urine produced?

ADH levels decrease
renin levels increase
aldosterone levels increase
parathyroid hormone levels decrease
H+ secretion increases; bicarbonate reabsorption increases
In renal compensation of acidosis,

H+ secretion decreases; bicarbonate excretion increases.
H+ secretion decreases; bicarbonate reabsorption increases.
H+ secretion increases; bicarbonate reabsorption increases.
H+ secretion increases; bicarbonate excretion increases.
increase, decrease
An increase in blood CO2 levels is followed by a(n) ____ in H+ ions and a(n) ____ in blood pH.

decrease, decrease
decrease, increase
increase, increase
increase, decrease
retention of hydrogen ions by the kidney
Once alkalosis has occurred, which of the following would you expect to happen?

increased respiratory rate
a plasma pH less than 7.40
retention of hydrogen ions by the kidney
increased renal reabsorption of bicarbonate ions
increased ADH production
Which of the following would be expected to cause hyponatremia?

high intake of sodium
increased aldosterone production
increased urine output
increased ADH production
kidneys.
The main regulator of serum phosphate levels is a transport process in the

liver.
kidneys.
pancreas.
small intestine.
NaCl buffer system
Which of the following is not a buffer system of the body?

bicarbonate buffer system
phosphate buffer system
protein buffer system
NaCl buffer system
increased blood osmolality
Increased ADH secretion could be stimulated by which of the following situations?

increased renal blood flow
increased blood osmolality
increased atrial natriuretic hormone production
increased blood pressure
elevated potassium levels.
Aldosterone secretion may be stimulated by

ADH.
elevated potassium levels.
excess water intake.
elevated sodium levels
acids
Which of the following substances releases hydrogen ions into a solution?

acids
bases
salts
glucose
parathyroid hormone and vitamin D levels.
Calcium balance is influenced by

ADH and parathyroid hormone levels.
ADH and aldosterone levels.
parathyroid hormone and vitamin D levels.
aldosterone and parathyroid hormone levels.
metabolic alkalosis.
Prolonged vomiting of stomach contents will result in

metabolic acidosis.
metabolic alkalosis.
respiratory acidosis.
respiratory alkalosis.
sodium.
The predominant extracellular cation is

bicarbonate.
sodium.
chloride.
potassium.
C. within cells
The largest volume of body fluid is located
A. in plasma
B. in lymph
C. within cells
D. between cells
C. phosphate
Bone, DNA, RNA, ATP, and cell membranes all have one thing in common. They all contain _____ .
A. sulfur
B. calcium
C. phosphate
D. magnesium
B. a lower concentration of protein anions than plasma
Intracellular fluid has
A. a higher concentration of potassium than interstitial fluid
B. a lower concentration of protein anions than plasma
C. a higher concentration of bicarbonate than plasma
D. approximately the same concentrations of sodium, chloride, and potassium as plasma
D. causes renal tubule cells to reabsorb calcium
Parathyroid hormone
A. is released when blood calcium level rises
B. stimulates osteoblasts and inhibits osteoclasts
C. causes the cells of the nephron to reabsorb phosphate
D. causes renal tubule cells to reabsorb calcium
B. characterized by muscular weakness, tachycardia, and dizziness
Lower than normal blood concentration of sodium is
A. called hypernatremia
B. characterized by muscular weakness, tachycardia, and dizziness
C. characterized by thirst, restlessness, agitation, and coma
D. due to the fact that most people do not consume enough sodium
D. sodium
Levels of which of the following are regulated by aldosterone?A. carbonic acid
B. glucose
C. magnesium
D. sodium
A. dissociate into anions and cations
Electrolytes
A. dissociate into anions and cations
B. generally have covalent bonds
C. include glucose, urea, and creatine
D. are usually organic compounds
C. They are necessary for generation of action potentials
Which of the following is true concerning sodium ions?A. They represent about 90 percent of extracellular anions
B. They combine with chloride ions in gastric glands to form hydrochloric acid
C. They are necessary for generation of action potentials
D. Excess ions are stored by the kidneys
B. water
Reabsorption of sodium from the tubules of the nephron establishes an osmotic gradient that causes _____ to move back into the blood.
A. salt
B. water
C. magnesium,
D. calcium
C. extracellular fluid
The cerebrospinal fluid in the brain is classified as
A. intracellular fluid
B. lymph
C. extracellular fluid
D. plasma
D. glucose
Which one of the following chemicals is a not an electrolyte?A. calcium phosphate
B. potassium chloride
C. sodium bicarbonate
D. glucose
C. sodium
The most abundant cation in plasma is _______.
A. phosphate
B. potassium
C. sodium
D. chloride
C. uncompensated respiratory
A patient whose blood pH is 7.5, whose concentration of HCO3- in arterial blood is 25 mEq/liter, and whose partial pressure of CO2 is 32 mm Hg in arterial blood is experiencing ________alkalosis?
A. uncompensated metabolic
B. compensated metabolic
C. uncompensated respiratory
D. compensated respiratory
A. pH
Hyperventilation (breathing in and out more air than normal) during a panic attack causes an increase in blood ________.
A. pH
B. H+
C. partial pressure of CO2
D. partial pressure of CO2 and H+
D. protein buffer system
The most abundant buffer system inside body cells and in plasma is the
A. carbonic acid buffer system
B. phosphate buffer system
C. sodium bicarbonate buffer system
D. protein buffer system
C. excrete hydrogen ions in the urine
The only way the body can get rid of the huge acid load produced by metabolic reactions is to
A. increase the concentration of bicarbonate ions
B. breathe faster and more deeply
C. excrete hydrogen ions in the urine
D. increase the concentration of proteins in the plasma
B. double
The metabolic rate of infants is about _______ as that of adults.
A. the same
B. double
C. triple
D. quadruple
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
Which of the following will inhibit the secretion of growth hormone?

growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH)
somatomedins
a posterior pituitary inhibiting hormone
occurs when the arterial PCO2 falls below 35 mmHg.
Respiratory alkalosis

occurs when the arterial PCO2 falls below 35 mmHg.
occurs when the arterial PCO2 is above 35 mmHg.
lipotropins
Which of the following hormones promotes the breakdown of fatty acids?

lipotropins
somatotropins
gonadotropins
thyrotropins
posterior pituitary
The hypothalamohypophyseal tract connects the hypothalamus to the

anterior pituitary.
posterior pituitary.
pars distalis.
adenohypophysis
neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis.
The two functional portions of the pituitary gland are the

infundibulum and neurohypophysis.
pars nervosa and pars tuberalis.
neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis.
adenohypophysis and infundibulum.
High cortisol levels will begin to cause ACTH levels to decline.
If both ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and cortisol levels increase, which of the following would occur?

ACTH production is increased even more by positive feedback.
High cortisol levels will begin to cause ACTH levels to decline.
High ACTH levels will begin to cause cortisol levels to decline
glycogen synthesis.
Increased insulin secretion immediately following a meal will result in increased

fat catabolism.
glycogenolysis.
gluconeogenesis.
glycogen synthesis.
action potentials from hypothalamic neurosecretory cells.
Hormones are released from the posterior pituitary when posterior pituitary cells are stimulated by

hypothalamic releasing hormones.
hormones from the anterior pituitary.
action potentials from hypothalamic neurosecretory cells.
the primary capillary network.
blood osmolality increases
ADH secretion will increase when

blood osmolality increases.
blood pressure increases.
blood volume increases.
blood pH increases.
FSH and LH
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) regulates the release of

prolactin and oxytocin.
FSH and LH.
estrogen and testosterone.
progesterone and prolactin.
increase the uptake of glucose by its target tissues.
A function of insulin is to

increase the uptake of glucose by its target tissues.
decrease the uptake of amino acids by its target tissues.
increase glycogen breakdown in the liver and skeletal muscle.
increase breakdown of fats.
Enzymes break down thyroglobulin to release T3 and T4
Which of the following events occurs last?

Enzymes break down thyroglobulin to release T3 and T4.
T3 and T4 are stored within thyroid follicles.
Iodine is bound to tyrosine molecules of thyroglobulin.
Thyroglobulin is taken into thyroid cells by endocytosis.
insulin secretion decreases; glucagon secretion increases.
When blood sugar levels decrease,

insulin and glucagon secretion increase.
insulin and glucagon secretion decrease.
insulin secretion increases; glucagon secretion decreases.
insulin secretion decreases; glucagon secretion increases
pars distalis
Which of the following is a subdivision of the anterior pituitary?

pars nervosa
pars distalis
pars hypothalamus
pars infundibuli
neurohormones of the hypothalamus.
Hormone secretion by the anterior pituitary is controlled by

hormones of the thalamus.
neurohormones of the hypothalamus.
itself (anterior pituitary) because it is the master gland of the body.
the overall rate of metabolism.
a rapid fall in the blood sugar level.
Insulin shock occurs when there is

damage to pancreatic beta cells.
too much glucose available.
a rapid fall in the blood sugar level.
overstimulation of alpha cells.
weight gain
Which of the following characteristics is associated with hyposecretion of thyroid hormones?

weight gain
exophthalmos
warm, flushed skin
increased heartrate
may inhibit reproductive functions
Secretions of the pineal body

include vasopressin.
may be involved with development of the
may inhibit reproductive functions
accidental removal of the parathyroids during surgery
Julie was diagnosed with an aggressive tumor of the thyroid. Surgery was performed to remove the thyroid. However, post-operatively, Julie's blood calcium levels began declining to life-threatening levels. This decline is most likely due to

thyroid hormone replacement therapy after the surgery.
damage to the anterior pituitary during surgery.
accidental removal of the parathyroids during surgery.
improper laboratory handling of blood samples
hypokalemia.
A tumor in the adrenal cortex causes excessively high levels of aldosterone. The high aldosterone levels cause

hyponatremia.
acidosis.
hypokalemia.
hypocalcemia.
nursing a baby
Oxytocin release is stimulated by

nursing a baby.
increased blood pressure.
increased urine output.
a hypothalamic releasing hormone.
LH
Synthesis of progesterone in the ovary and testosterone in the testis is stimulated by

LH.
MSH.
TSH.
ACTH
greater than
The amount of epinephrine secreted by the adrenal medulla is ____ the amount of norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal medulla.

greater than
less than
equal to
increased numbers of active transport molecules for glucose
Which of the following occurs when insulin molecules bind to their receptors on target cells?

increased mRNA synthesis in the target cells
minimal uptake of glucose by target cells
phosphorylation of proteins in the nuclear membrane in the target cells
increased numbers of active transport molecules for glucose
Epinephrine increases blood pressure
Which of the following is true?

The effects of epinephrine are long-lasting (days to weeks).
Epinephrine increases blood pressure.
Epinephrine decreases heart rate.
Epinephrine increases GI tract activity.
increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, decrease gastric tract motility
An injection of epinephrine would

increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, increase gastric tract motility.
decrease heart rate, decrease blood pressure, increase gastric tract motility.
increase heart rate, increase blood pressure, decrease gastric tract motility.
decrease heart rate, decrease gastric motility, increase blood pressure.
influence the same cell type that produced them
Autocrine chemical signals

influence the same cell type that produced them.
are secreted by some endocrine glands.
have systemic effects.
such as enkephalins may modulate the sensation of pain.
osmoreceptors
A person working outside in the hot sun can perspire a great deal. This increase in perspiration results in an increase in water loss from the body. Increased water loss causes the serum osmolality to increase. This increased osmolality is "sensed" by the

kidneys.
osmoreceptors.
cerebral cortex.
anterior pituitary.
decreases
Overall, PTH _____ blood phosphate levels.

increases
decreases
has no effect on
hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
ADH is synthesized by the ____ while TSH is synthesized by the ____.

kidney; thyroid
posterior pituitary; thyroid
hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
kidney; anterior pituitary
B. prolactin
Which of the following hormones requires a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus for its secretion?
A. oxytocin
B. prolactin
C. antidiuretic hormone
D. calcitonin
D. cAMP
A "second messenger" for hormone response is
A. adenylate cyclase
B. ATP
C. protein kinase
D. cAMP
A. iodine
For the formation of thyroxine to occur, it is essential that _____ be present.
A. iodine
B. calcitonin
C. calcium
D. iron
D. low levels of calcium ion in the blood
5. What stimulates the release of PTH from the parathyroid gland?
A. calcitonin from the anterior pituitary gland
B. TSH from the posterior pituitary gland
C. low levels of glucose in the blood
D. low levels of calcium ion in the blood
C. cortisol
Which of the following is classified as a glucocorticoid?
A. vasopressin
B. aldosterone
C. cortisol
D. epinephrine
A. zona glomerulosa
Which region of the adrenal gland produces mineralocorticoids?
A. zona glomerulosa
B. zona fasciculata
C. zona reticularis
D. medulla
B. beta
The _____ cells of the islets of Langerhans secrete insulin.
A. alpha
B. beta
C. delta
D. gamma
B. anterior pituitary
Target cells for hypothalamic releasing hormones are in the A. hypothalamus
B. anterior pituitary
C. posterior pituitary
D. thyroid
B. Receptors are located on the cell membrane
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of steroid hormones?
A. They are lipid soluble
B. Receptors are located on the cell membrane
C. They act on the DNA level
D. They work through intracellular receptors
A. pancreas
Which of the following has both endocrine and exocrine functions?
A. pancreas
B. anterior pituitary
C. thyroid
D. adrenal medulla
B. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
Which of the following produce antagonistic results?
A. FSH and LH
B. calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
C. ADH and vasopressin
D. oxytocin and prolactin
B. anterior pituitary
Tropic hormones are secreted by the
A. adrenal cortex
B. anterior pituitary
C. hypothalamus
D. parathyroid glands
B. stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
A. promotes normal functioning of the adrenal medulla
B. stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
C. promotes release of CRF from the hypothalamus
D. stimulates the adrenal medulla to secrete mineralocorticoids
D. stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown
Human growth hormone, through the action of insulinlike growth factors,
A. stimulates testes to produce sperm and stimulates growth of the corpus luteum
B. regulates the amount of calcium ions in the blood
C. stimulates reabsorption of both Na+ and K+
D. stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein breakdown
B. zona fasciculata, influence protein and fat metabolism, and promote vasoconstriction
Glucocorticoids are produced in the
A. zona glomerulosa and regulate the concentration of extracellular electrolytes
B. zona fasciculata, influence protein and fat metabolism, and promote vasoconstriction
C. zona glomerulosa and supplement sex hormones from the ovaries
D. zona fasciculata, regulate concentration of extracellular electrolytes, and influence carbohydrate metabolism
A. Cushing's syndrome
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoids results in the following clinical symptoms: redistribution of body fat, hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, weakness, hypertension, 'moon face' and 'buffalo hump', excessive bruising, and poor wound healing. These symptoms are associated with
A. Cushing's syndrome
B. toxic goiter
C. hyperparathyroidism
D. Addison's disease
A. premature closing of the epiphyseal plates
A sign of pituitary dwarfism is
A. premature closing of the epiphyseal plates
B. massive enlargement of the thyroid gland
C. glycosuria, polyuria, ketosis, and hyperglycemia
D. exophthalmos, gynecomastia, and buffalo hump .,
A. are eicosanoids that act as local hormones in most body tissues.
Prostaglandins
A. are eicosanoids that act as local hormones in most body tissues.
B. stimulate increased intracellular levels of cAMP by activating adenylate cyclase
C. combine with cytoplasmic receptors and directly affect host cell DNA
D. work with protein kinase to deactivate cAMP and thus stimulate cells to make new and different proteins
B. PTH
The concentration of calcium ions and phosphates in the blood is regulated by
A. thyroid hormone
B. PTH
C. growth hormone
B. T3
Which of the following hormones influence metabolism of most somatic cells?
A. PRL
B. T3
C. FSH
D. thymosin
C. glycosuria, polyuria, ketosis, and hyperglycemia
Which of the following are associated with diabetes mellitus?
A. premature closing of the epiphyseal plates
B. massive enlargement of the thyroid gland
C. glycosuria, polyuria, ketosis, and hyperglycemia
D. exophthalmos, gynecomastia, and buffalo hump
C. norepinephrine
Which chemical acts both as a neurotransmitter in some locations and as a hormone in other locations?
A. insulin
B. thyroxine
C. norepinephrine
D. acetylcholine
B. down-regulation
When an excess of a hormone is present the number of target cell receptors may decrease. This change is called
A. up-regulation
B. down-regulation
C. adaptation
D. accommodation
D. local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them
Autocrines are
A. neurohormones of the autonomic nervous system
B. hormones that are circulating in the blood
C. local hormones that act on neighboring cells
D. local hormones that act on the same cell that secreted them
C. a paracrine
In the stomach, the release of histamine by mast cells stimulates nearby cells to secrete hydrochloric acid). Histamine can therefore be classified as
A. an endocrine
B. an exocrine
C. a paracrine
D. an autocrine
Eicosanoid hormones are produced in
A. the hypothalamus
B. the ovaries and testes
C. enteroendrocrine cells of the stomach and intestine
D. all cells except red blood cells
Eicosanoid hormones are produced in
A. the hypothalamus
B. the ovaries and testes
C. enteroendrocrine cells of the stomach and intestine
Eicosanoid hormones are produced in
A. the hypothalamus
B. the ovaries and testes
C. enteroendrocrine cells of the stomach and intestine
D. all cells except red blood cells
C. hypothalamus
The ____________ is the major integrating link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
A. thyroid gland
B. pancreas
C. hypothalamus
D. primary somatosensory cortex
B. attach to specific transport proteins
Upon entering the blood, steroid and thyroid hormones
A. circulate freely as separate molecules
B. attach to specific transport proteins
C. combine with lipid carrier molecules
D. react chemically with carbohydrates to inactivate them
D. hypothalamus of the brain
The cell bodies of the axons of the posterior pituitary gland are actually located in the
A. infundibulum
B. anterior pituitary gland
C. cerebral cortex
D. hypothalamus of the brain
A. hypophyseal portal veins
Blood passes in a direct route from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland through the
A. hypophyseal portal veins
B. superior hypophyseal arteries
C. carotid artery
D. posterior hypophyseal veins
A. parathyroid gland
Which endocrine gland is NOT regulated by tropic hormones of the anterior pituitary?
A. parathyroid gland
B. thyroid gland
C. adrenal cortex
D. ovaries
C. human growth hormone (hGH)
The most abundant anterior pituitary hormone is
A. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
B. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
C. human growth hormone (hGH)
D. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
D. human growth hormone
Abnormally high levels of which anterior pituitary hormone will lead to hyperglycemia?
A. thyroid stimulating hormone
B. prolactin
C. oxytocin
D. human growth hormone
C. oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
The posterior pituitary gland stores and secretes
A. prolactin and follicle stimulating hormone
B. human growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone
C. oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
D. glucocorticoids and androgens
C. decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone
If you drank a liter of water very quickly, the result would be A. increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone
B. decreased secretion of oxytocin
C. decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone
D. increased secretion of oxytocin
D. diabetes insipidis
Abnormally low secretion of ADH from the posterior pituitary gland results in the disease
A. myxedema
B. cretinism
C. diabetes mellitus
D. diabetes insipidis
A. glucocorticoids
Adrenal hormones useful in treating chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatism are
A. glucocorticoids
B. mineralocorticoids
C. epinephrine
D. norepinephrine
B. ACTH
The release of cortisol is stimulated by
A. CRH
B. ACTH
C. aldosterone
D. angiotensin
C. over 35 years in age
Type II diabetes most often occurs in humans who are overweight and
A. in their early childhood
B. between 10 and 20 years of age
C. over 35 years in age
D. elderly, usually over 65
C. diabetes mellitus
Either a deficiency of insulin production by the pancreas, or defects in insulin receptors on target cells, result in the disease
A. myxedema
B. cretinism
C. diabetes mellitus
D. diabetes insipidis
D. relaxin
Which hormone is not produced in the male?
A. inhibin
B. testosterone
C. FSH
D. relaxin
A. brain
The pineal gland is located in the
A. brain
B. neck, near the thyroid gland
C. upper chest region
D. lower abdomen, near the bladder
C. pineal gland
Jet lag is associated with the changes in secretion of a hormone from the
A. hypothalamus
B. anterior pituitary gland
C. pineal gland
D. thyroid gland
D. iodine and tyrosine
Thyroid hormones are synthesized in thyroglobulin from
A. iron and tyrosine
B. iodine and tryptophan
C. phosphorus and arginine
D. iodine and tyrosine
C. prostaglandins
In 1971, it was discovered that aspirin exerts its effect in reducing pain and inflammation by blocking the chemical synthesis of
A. glucocorticoids
B. norepinephrine
C. prostaglandins
D. melatonin
B. CRH, TRH, and GHRH
The releasing hormones of the hypothalamus responsible for initiating the resistance reaction phase of the GAS are
A. GNRH and PIH
B. CRH, TRH, and GHRH
C. oxytocin and ADH
D. PRH, FSH, and IGFs
C. hormones acts on muscles and glands only
Which of the following does not describe hormones in the body?
A. they are mediator molecules released in one part of the body but regulating the activity of cells in other parts of the body
B. most hormones enter interstitial fluid and then the bloodstream
C. hormones acts on muscles and glands only
D. hormones exert their effects by binding to receptors on or in the "target" cells
D. cerebral spinal fluid changes
Hormone secretion is regulated by all but which of the following?
A. neural signals
B. blood chemistry changes
C. other hormones
D. cerebral spinal fluid changes