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True or false
Thirst mechanism is highly sensitive and responsive to change in fluid balance.


T or F
As blood volume decreases, blood pressure increases.

a decrease in blood volume = a decrease in blood pressure

T or F
Water is a common solevent in the body.


Is there more or less water content in lean tissue?


Which gender has more water content?


What is interstitial fluid.

the fluid that flows between the cells that make up a particular tissue or organ, such as musclle fibeers or the liver

An increase of electrons by atom during metabolism is ___________.


List the two most common intracellular ions.


List the two most common extracellular ions.


What are electrolytes?

- electrically charged minerals
- a substance that separates to form ions when dissolvedd in water

What do electrolytes do, generally?

- help regulate fluid balance
- enable nerves to respond to stimuli
- signal muscles to contract

Which groupss of peoplee (aage) are most susceeptible to dehydratiion?

elderly & infants

What issues are linked to free radical damage?

heart disease

What is the major caause of hypertension?

high intake of salt

What happens when free raddicals form in the phospholipid bilayer of a cell?

it breaks up the phospholipid bilayer which causes cell misfunction.

What role do antioxidants play in the cell membraane when free radicals form?

They stabilize the free radical.

T or F
Cell membranes are permeable to wateer but not electrolytes


T or F
Processed foods tend to be low in sodium and high in potassium.


T or F
The USA diet is often deficient in both phosphorus and chloride.


T or F
Limitinng salt consumption will improve the blood pressure in virtually all individuals with hypertension.


Julie expends 24000 cal/day, assume average environmental conditions, about how much water should she drink per day?

2400-2600 ml

Whatt is the prime reason we sweat?

maintain body temperature

Where do we get the majority of dietary chloride?

table salt

Which food has the lowest amount of sodium?
canned soup
dill pickle


The fluid in the bloodstream and lymps is _____________ fluid.

intravascular fluid

The fluid that flows between the cells is ____________ fluid.

interstitial fluid

The fluid outside of the body's cells, either interstitial fluid or intravascular fluid, is _____________ fluid.

extracellular fluid

The fluid held at any given time within the walls of the body's cells is ______________ fluid.

intracellular fluid

A substance composed of molecules that move past one another freely...characterized by their ability to conform to the shape of whatever container holds them.


What condition is more commmon in people who consume lots of sodium?

high blood pressure

About 90% of vitamin E is stored in the _______ ______.

adipose tissue

Are dietary supplements regulated by the FDA?


True or False
Night blindness results when the cone cells are deficient in vitamin A.

cone cells for color
rod cells for light

How do antioxidants stabilize free radicals?

donate hydrogen

True or False
Research suggests that vitamin C supplements taken daily will reduce the incidence of the common cold.


True or False
If you smoke, you are recommended to consume higher amounts of vitamin C.


True or False
Cooking foods high in carotenoids improves their bioavailability.


The deficiency disease associated with vitamin C is...


The doctor recently told John that he is anemic. John shoulld consume _____ with his iron supplement to increase its absorption.

Vitamin C

Which antioxidant enzyme system functions by neutralizing the superoxide ion?

superoxide dismutase

What is interstitial fluid?

fluid within cells that make up muscle

What are some common extracellular ions?


What are some common intracellular ions?


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