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87 terms

Ch. 17/18

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joined the Whig party because he could not stomach the dictatorial tactics of Andrew Jackson.
John Tyler
placed John Tyler on the 1840 ticket as vice president to attract the vote of the state's rightists.
The Whigs
After President John Tyler's veto of a bill to establish a new Bank of the United States,
he was expelled from the Whig party, all but one member of his party resigned, an attempt was made to the House of Representatives to impeach him, and Tyler vetoed a Whig-sponsored high-tariff bill.
The only member of President Tyler's Whig cabinet who did not resign in protest over his policies was
Daniel Webster
During an 1837 Canadian insurrection against Britain
America was invaded by the British
As a result of the panic of 1837
several states defaulted on their debts to Britain
The British-American dispute over the border of Maine was solved by a compromise that
gave each side some territory
The Aroostook War was the result of
a dispute over the northern boundary of Maine
Arrange the following in chronological order:
Aroostook War, Webster-Ashburton Treaty, annexation of Texas, and settlement of the Oregon boundary
Some people in Britain hoped for a British alliance with Mexico because the alliance would
give abolitionists the opportunity to free slaves in Texas
One argument against annexing Texas to the United States was that the annexation might
give more power to the supporters of slavery
Texas was annexed to the United States as a result of
President Tyler's desire to help his troubled administration
Arrange the following in chronological order of the United State's acquisition:
Texas, Oregon, and California.
The primary group that was instrumental in strengthening and saving American claims to Oregon were
American missionaries to the Indians.
Most Americans who migrated to the Orange County were attracted by
the rich soil of the Willamette River Valley
The nomination of James K. Polk as the Democrats' 1844 presidential candidate was
secured by southern expansionists.
The area in dispute between the United States and Great Britain in 1845 lay between
the Columbia River, the forty-ninth parallel, and the Pacific Ocean.
In the 1840s, the view that God had ordained the growth of an American nation stretching across North America was called
Manifest Destiny
In the presidential election of 1844, the Whig candidate, Henry Clay, favored
both the annexation of Texas and the postponement of that annexation.
The election of 1844 was notable because it was
fought over numerous issues.
The group most supportive of gaining control of all the Oregon Country was
the northern Democrats.
In the Oregon treaty with Britain in 1846, the northern boundary of the United States was established to
the Pacific Ocean along the line of 49º
One reason that the British government decided to compromise on the Oregon County border was
their belief that the territory was not worth fighting for
In his quest for California, President James K. Polk
first advocated buying the area from Mexico.
Arrange the following into chronological order:
Slidell mission rejected, American troops ordered to the Rio Grande Valley, declaration of war on Mexico, and Bear Flag revolt.
In 1846 the United States went to war with Mexico for all of the following reasons:
the ideology of Manifest Destiny, the deaths of American soldiers at the hands of Mexicans, the desire to gain payment for damage claims against the Mexican government, and Polk's desire to acquire California.
President Polk's claim that "American blood [had been shed] on the American soil" referred to
news of an armed clash between Mexican and American troops near the Rio Grande.
During the Mexican War, the Polk administration was called on several times to respond to "spot" resolution indicating where
American blood had been shed to provoke the war.
The resolutions were frequently introduced by
Abraham Lincoln.
One goal of Mexico in its 1846-1848 war with the United States was to
free black slaves.
When the war with Mexico began, President James K. Polk hoped to
fight a limited war, ending with the conquest of California.
Match each American officer below with his theatre of command in the Mexican War:
Stephen W. Kearny - Santa Fe; Zachary Taylor - northern Mexico; Winfield Scott - Mexico City; John C. Frémont - California
The terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo ending the Mexican-American War included
United States payment of $15 million for the cession of northern Mexico.
Those people who most opposed President James K. Polk's expansionist program were
the antislavery forces.
The Wilmot Proviso symbolized
the burning issue of slavery in the territories.
The Wilmot Proviso, introduced into Congress during the Mexican War, declared that
slavery would be banned from all territories that Mexico ceded to the United States.
Then a largest single addition to American territory was the
Mexican Cession.
The first Old World Europeans to come to California were the
Spanish.
The Spanish Franciscan missionaries treated the native inhabitants of California
very harshly
When the Mexican government secularized authority in California, Californians eventually
gained control of their land.
The Californians' political ascendency in California ended as a result of
the influx of Anglo gold diggers.
In order to maintain the two great political parties as vital bonds of national unity, early 19th century politicians avoided
public discussion of slavery.
The United States' victory in the Mexican War resulted in
renewed controversy over the issue of extending slavery into the territories, a possible split in the Whig and Democrat parties over slavery, the cession by Mexico of an enormous amount of land to the United States, and a rush of settlers to new American territory in California.
The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have
prohibited slavery in any territory acquired in the Mexican War.
The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession threatened to
split national politics along North-South lines.
In 1848, the Free Soil party platform advocated all of the following:
support of the Wilmot Proviso; free government homesteads for settlers; opposition to slavery in the territories; and an end to slavery in the District of Columbia.
Presidential candidates in the 1848 election included
Martin Van Buren, Lewis Cass, and Zachary Taylor.
According to the principle of "popular sovereignty"
the question of slavery in the territories would be determined by the vote of the people in any given territory.
The public liked popular sovereignty because it
fit in with the democratic tradition of self determination.
In the 1848 presidential election, the Democratic and Whig parties
remained silent on the issue of slavery.
The key issue for the major parties in the 1848 presidential election was
personalities
The event that brought turmoil to the administration of Zachary Taylor was
the discovery of gold in California.
The Free Soldiers argued that slavery would
cause more costly wage labor to wither away.
Of those people going to California during the gold rush, a distressingly high proportion were
lawless men
The Free Soilers condemned slavery because it
destroyed the chances of free white workers to rise to self-employment.
By 1850, the South was
relatively well off, politically and economically.
Harriet Tubman gained fame by
helping slaves to escape to Canada.
During the 1850s, slaves gained their freedom most frequently by
self-purchase
John C. Calhoun's plan to protect the South and slavery involved
the election of two presidents, one from the North and one from the South.
Daniel Webster's famed Seventh of March speech in 1850 resulted in
a shift toward compromise in the North.
In his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster called for
a new, more stringent fugitive-slave law.
For his position in his Seventh of March speech, Daniel Webster was
viciously condemned by abolitionists.
The Young Guard from the North were most interested in
purging and purifying the Union.
In the debates of 1850, Senator William H. Seward, as a representative of the northern Young Guard, argued that
Christian legislators must obey God's moral law.
During the debate of 1850, William H. Seward argued that there was a "higher law" than the Constitution that compelled him to
demand the exclusion of slavery from the territories.
President Zachary Taylor unknowingly helped the cause of compromise in 1850 when he
died suddenly and Millard Fillmore became president.
Southern delegates met at a convention in Nashville in the summer of 1850 to
condemn the compromises being worked out in Congress.
In the Compromise of 1850, Congress determined that slavery in the New Mexico and Utah territories was to be decided by
popular sovereignty
The most alarming aspect of the Compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision concerning
the new Fugitive Slave Law.
The Fugitive Slave Law included all of the following provisions:
denial of a jury trial to runaway slaves; denial of fleeing slaves' right to testify on their own behalf; the penalty of imprisonment for northerners who helped slaves to escape; and a higher payment if officials determined blacks to be runaways.
Many northern states passed "personal liberty laws" in response to
the Compromise of 1850's provision regarding runaway slaves.
In light of future evidence, it seems apparent that in the Compromise of 1850 the South made a tactical blunder by
demanding a strong fugitive-slave law.
The fatal split in the Whig party in 1852 occurred over
slavery
The election of 1852 was significant because it
marked the end of the Whig party.
For a short time in the 1850s, an American seized control of
Nicaragua.
The man who opened Japan to the United States was
Matthew Perry
The prime objective of Manifest Destiny in the 1850s was
Cuba
The United States' scheme to gain control of Cuba was stopped when
northern free soilers fiercely protested the effort.
The most brazen scheme for territorial expansion in the 1850s was expressed in
the Ostend Manifesto.
Most American leaders believed that the only way to keep the new Pacific Coast territories from breaking away from United States control was to
construct a transcontinental railroad.
A southern route for the transcontinental railroad seemed the best because
the railroad would be easier to build in this area.
Stephen A. Douglas proposed that the question of slavery in the Kansas-Nebraska Territory be decided by
popular sovereignty
Stephen A. Douglas's plans for deciding the slavery question in the Kansas-Nebraska scheme required
repeal of the Missouri Compromise.
One of Stephen Douglas's mistakes in proposing the Kansas-Nebraska Act was
underestimating the depth of northern opposition to the spread of slavery.
The new Free Soil party in 1848 found major support from those who
favored high tariffs, had wanted all of Oregon up to the 54 40' line, condemned slavery as immoral, wanted to keep slavery out of the territories; and believed that slavery harmed white labor.
In 1850, the South was deeply worried because
the Underground Railroad was carrying away hundreds of slaves each year and California sought admission as a free state.
Southerners insisted that the first transcontinental railroad should run through the Southwest because
construction would be less difficult there and the railroad would pass through already organized territory of the United States.