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93 terms

A&P I Ch7

STUDY
PLAY
Greg trips over a toy and experiences a sharp pain. His physician diagnosis a torn meniscus. Greg has injured his
knee joint
Classifying joints as synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, or diarthrotic represents
the degree of movement possible at the joint.
When a joint is immobilized for a prolonged time, there is danger that
articular cartilage will degenerate.
What is a synovial joint?
Condylar, ball-and-socket, saddle, hinge
lifting the arm horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body or moving a part away from the midline
Abduction
Artificial joints are built of
silicone polymers for small joints and metals for large joints.
Which of the following best describes the causes of common forms of arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease and osteoarthritis is caused by effects of aging.
Kicking a soccer ball is flexion of the leg at the knee joint as the foot draws back and then extension as it contacts the ball.
True
Which is a function of bone?
To protect soft tissues, to house the tissue that manufactures blood cells, to store inorganic salts, to provide a framework for the body.
What is found in spongy bone?
trabeculae, canaliculi, osteoblasts, periosteum
Compact bone has ________, whereas spongy bone has __________.
tightly packed tissue that is solid, strong, and resistant to bending; cancellous bone that reduces the weight of bone
The white material that reduces friction at the ends of bones is called
articular cartilage
Articular cartilage is
hyaline cartilage
A six-month-old baby is admitted to the hospital for the third time for a broken bone, and the parents are arrested on charges of child abuse. The defense lawyer gets the charges dropped after the results of genetic tests come back for which condition?
ostegensis imperfecta
A bone does NOT thicken by
activity of osteocytes in the medullary cavity, increased secretion of calcium salts by osteoclasts, increased activity of the epiphyseal plate, adding blood vessels and nerves.
Osteoblasts are ______, whereas osteocytes are ______.
bone-forming cells; mature bone cells
A vitamin D deficiency results in ______, whereas a vitamin A deficiency results in ______.
rickets; retardation of bone development
Which is a step in endochondral bone formation?
hyaline cartilage develops into the shape of the future bone; periosteum forms from connective tissue outside the developing bone; ostoblasts deposit osseous tissue in place of disintegrating cartilage; osteoblasts deposit a thin layer of compact bone beneath the periosteum.
What is an example of an intramembranous bone?
Broad, flat skull bones
Osteoblasts deposit bone matrix around themselves and become osteocytes when they are isolated in lacunae.
True
Endochondral ossification ______, whereas intramembranous ossification ______.
replaces hyaline cartilage; replaces undifferentiated connective tissue
The thyroid hormone thyroxine can ______ bone growth by ______.
increase; stimulating osteoblast activity in the epiphyseal plate
Sex hormones stimulate
ossification of epiphyseal plates.
Exercise ______ and _______ bones.
thickens; strengthens
The type of calcium phosphate forming most of the inorganic salts in bone extracellular matrix is
hydroxyaptite
The axial skeleton includes the
skull, hyoid bone, thoracic cage, and vertebral column.
A cleft palate results from incomplete development of the
maxillae
The hip bones include
the ilium, the ischium, and pubis.
Ribs that join the sternum directly by costal cartilages are called
true ribs
What describes a female's pelvis compared to a male's pelvis?
A cavity that is wider in all dimensions, with lighter bones.
A compound fracture
results when the broken bone is exposed to the outside.
Which of the following correctly lists the steps of fracture repair in sequence?
A hematoma forms, granulation tissue and fibrocartilage develop, osteoclasts and phagocytes clear away debris, bony callus forms.
Eighty-year-old Evelyn takes a bisphosphonate drug once a month to keep her bones strong. She most likely has
osteoporosis
A bone shaft is the diaphysis; the expanded part at the ends are the epiphyses.
True
Perforating canals form transverse channels in bone tissue.
True
The number of bones in most people is 206.
True
Fontanels in the infant's skull permit some bone movement, enabling the infant to pass more easily through the birth canal.
True
As a person ages, osteoblasts outnumber osteoclasts.
False
The medullary cavity of a long bone is lined with a thin cellular layer called ______.
endosteum
Blood cell formation is called _____________.
hematopoiesis
The membrane around the bone is called
periosteum
The Haversian system is the structural unit of
compact bone; cortical bone
A fracture caused by excessive twisting of the bone.
spiral
Once a tunnel of bone is formed around a blood vessel, the bone building cells of the __________ lay down bone in concentric circles that fill the tunnel.
endosteum
Bones grow through the process of ____________ growth.
appositional
What is the function of yellow marrow?
storage of fats
What is the function of red bone marrow?
red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
The hormone that stimulates osteoblast activity.
thyroxine
Absence of this hormone as a child causes dwarfism.
growth
An infant has _____ separate bones in the vertebral column.
33
Classification of a joint that is slightly moveable
amphiarthrotic
Supplies cartilage with nutrients
synovial fluid
Discs of fibrocartilage that separate articular surfaces
menisci
A saclike fluid filled structure near a joint
bursae
The functional junction between two bones is called a __________.
joint
The largest and most complex of the synovial joints
knee
Which is a function of joints?
binds parts together, allows shape change during birth, allows bone growth
Classification of a joint that is immovable like a tooth in the jawbone.
gomphosis
Most skeletal joints are this type
synovial
Structure that reinforces and helps bond articulating end together.
ligament
Classification of a joint that is freely movable
diarthrotic
Raising a part
Elevation
lowering a part
depression
moving the part away from the midline
abduction
moving a part around an axis
rotation
bending a joint so the angle between the parts of a joint are decreased
flexion
straightening parts at a joint
extension
turning hand, palm down
pronation
turning hand, palm up
supination
moving a part backward
retraction
moving a part forward
protraction
moving a part so that the end follows a circular path
circumduction
turning the foot, sole inward
inversion
turning the foot, sole outward
eversion
bending the foot downward at the ankle
plantar flexion
joint between metacarpals and phalanges
condyloid
Cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within the ring of another bone
pivot
Joint between the carpals and metacarpals of the thumb
saddle
found in the hip and shoulder
ball and socket
Egg shaped head articulating with cup shaped cavity
ball and socket
Convex surface of one bone fits onto concave surface of another
hinge
Elbow is an example
hinge
Both bones have convex and concave surfaces but their surfaces are complimentary to each other
saddle
Atlas and axis
pivot
Articulating surfaces are flat so they slide back and forth
gliding
Wrist and vertebrae
gliding
Have greater length than width and consist of a shaft and two extremities are called
long
Somewhat cube shaped and nearly equal in length and width
short
Thin and composed of two relatively paralle plates of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone
flat
Vertebrae and certain facial bones are called
irregular
Small clusters of bones between the joints of certain cranial bones
wormian
Bones in tendons where considerable pressure develops
sesamoid
The patella is an example of
sesamoid