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93 terms

A&P I Ch7

Greg trips over a toy and experiences a sharp pain. His physician diagnosis a torn meniscus. Greg has injured his
knee joint
Classifying joints as synarthrotic, amphiarthrotic, or diarthrotic represents
the degree of movement possible at the joint.
When a joint is immobilized for a prolonged time, there is danger that
articular cartilage will degenerate.
What is a synovial joint?
Condylar, ball-and-socket, saddle, hinge
lifting the arm horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body or moving a part away from the midline
Artificial joints are built of
silicone polymers for small joints and metals for large joints.
Which of the following best describes the causes of common forms of arthritis?
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease and osteoarthritis is caused by effects of aging.
Kicking a soccer ball is flexion of the leg at the knee joint as the foot draws back and then extension as it contacts the ball.
Which is a function of bone?
To protect soft tissues, to house the tissue that manufactures blood cells, to store inorganic salts, to provide a framework for the body.
What is found in spongy bone?
trabeculae, canaliculi, osteoblasts, periosteum
Compact bone has ________, whereas spongy bone has __________.
tightly packed tissue that is solid, strong, and resistant to bending; cancellous bone that reduces the weight of bone
The white material that reduces friction at the ends of bones is called
articular cartilage
Articular cartilage is
hyaline cartilage
A six-month-old baby is admitted to the hospital for the third time for a broken bone, and the parents are arrested on charges of child abuse. The defense lawyer gets the charges dropped after the results of genetic tests come back for which condition?
ostegensis imperfecta
A bone does NOT thicken by
activity of osteocytes in the medullary cavity, increased secretion of calcium salts by osteoclasts, increased activity of the epiphyseal plate, adding blood vessels and nerves.
Osteoblasts are ______, whereas osteocytes are ______.
bone-forming cells; mature bone cells
A vitamin D deficiency results in ______, whereas a vitamin A deficiency results in ______.
rickets; retardation of bone development
Which is a step in endochondral bone formation?
hyaline cartilage develops into the shape of the future bone; periosteum forms from connective tissue outside the developing bone; ostoblasts deposit osseous tissue in place of disintegrating cartilage; osteoblasts deposit a thin layer of compact bone beneath the periosteum.
What is an example of an intramembranous bone?
Broad, flat skull bones
Osteoblasts deposit bone matrix around themselves and become osteocytes when they are isolated in lacunae.
Endochondral ossification ______, whereas intramembranous ossification ______.
replaces hyaline cartilage; replaces undifferentiated connective tissue
The thyroid hormone thyroxine can ______ bone growth by ______.
increase; stimulating osteoblast activity in the epiphyseal plate
Sex hormones stimulate
ossification of epiphyseal plates.
Exercise ______ and _______ bones.
thickens; strengthens
The type of calcium phosphate forming most of the inorganic salts in bone extracellular matrix is
The axial skeleton includes the
skull, hyoid bone, thoracic cage, and vertebral column.
A cleft palate results from incomplete development of the
The hip bones include
the ilium, the ischium, and pubis.
Ribs that join the sternum directly by costal cartilages are called
true ribs
What describes a female's pelvis compared to a male's pelvis?
A cavity that is wider in all dimensions, with lighter bones.
A compound fracture
results when the broken bone is exposed to the outside.
Which of the following correctly lists the steps of fracture repair in sequence?
A hematoma forms, granulation tissue and fibrocartilage develop, osteoclasts and phagocytes clear away debris, bony callus forms.
Eighty-year-old Evelyn takes a bisphosphonate drug once a month to keep her bones strong. She most likely has
A bone shaft is the diaphysis; the expanded part at the ends are the epiphyses.
Perforating canals form transverse channels in bone tissue.
The number of bones in most people is 206.
Fontanels in the infant's skull permit some bone movement, enabling the infant to pass more easily through the birth canal.
As a person ages, osteoblasts outnumber osteoclasts.
The medullary cavity of a long bone is lined with a thin cellular layer called ______.
Blood cell formation is called _____________.
The membrane around the bone is called
The Haversian system is the structural unit of
compact bone; cortical bone
A fracture caused by excessive twisting of the bone.
Once a tunnel of bone is formed around a blood vessel, the bone building cells of the __________ lay down bone in concentric circles that fill the tunnel.
Bones grow through the process of ____________ growth.
What is the function of yellow marrow?
storage of fats
What is the function of red bone marrow?
red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets
The hormone that stimulates osteoblast activity.
Absence of this hormone as a child causes dwarfism.
An infant has _____ separate bones in the vertebral column.
Classification of a joint that is slightly moveable
Supplies cartilage with nutrients
synovial fluid
Discs of fibrocartilage that separate articular surfaces
A saclike fluid filled structure near a joint
The functional junction between two bones is called a __________.
The largest and most complex of the synovial joints
Which is a function of joints?
binds parts together, allows shape change during birth, allows bone growth
Classification of a joint that is immovable like a tooth in the jawbone.
Most skeletal joints are this type
Structure that reinforces and helps bond articulating end together.
Classification of a joint that is freely movable
Raising a part
lowering a part
moving the part away from the midline
moving a part around an axis
bending a joint so the angle between the parts of a joint are decreased
straightening parts at a joint
turning hand, palm down
turning hand, palm up
moving a part backward
moving a part forward
moving a part so that the end follows a circular path
turning the foot, sole inward
turning the foot, sole outward
bending the foot downward at the ankle
plantar flexion
joint between metacarpals and phalanges
Cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within the ring of another bone
Joint between the carpals and metacarpals of the thumb
found in the hip and shoulder
ball and socket
Egg shaped head articulating with cup shaped cavity
ball and socket
Convex surface of one bone fits onto concave surface of another
Elbow is an example
Both bones have convex and concave surfaces but their surfaces are complimentary to each other
Atlas and axis
Articulating surfaces are flat so they slide back and forth
Wrist and vertebrae
Have greater length than width and consist of a shaft and two extremities are called
Somewhat cube shaped and nearly equal in length and width
Thin and composed of two relatively paralle plates of compact bone enclosing a layer of spongy bone
Vertebrae and certain facial bones are called
Small clusters of bones between the joints of certain cranial bones
Bones in tendons where considerable pressure develops
The patella is an example of