87 terms

Post War Reconstruction, Paying for WW2, Why Did Labour win the 1945 Election?

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Who showed that Labour could use big government powers for the greater good in the Second World War?
Ernest Bevin
Who served as the general secretary of the Transport and General Workers' Union from 1922 to 1940?
Ernest Bevin
How much did the work force rise under Bevin?
2000000
What was Bevin's job title during World War Two?
Minister of Labour & National Service
What were the things called that improved working conditions, through workers' canteens, washrooms, and medical centres?
Essential work orders
Over how many speeches were delivered by Bevin to workers and managers to motivate them?
300
When was 'Worker's Playtime' started?
1941
What was broadcast as lunchtime entertainment by the BBC from 1941 onwards?
Worker's Playtime
Despite strikes being illegal, how many illegal strikes had there been by October 1941?
1000
Who was Bevin's main rival in the cabinet?
Herbert Morrison
"Ernie Bevin could not stand Herbert Morrison, who had been a City boss when Bevin had been head of one of the biggest unions and the two had clashed. I would think that Bevin declared war on Morrison in the 1930s and that they were never going to come together. You could see his hackles rise every time, especially if Morrison tried to encroach on foreign affairs."

Who said this?
Harold Wilson
What percentage of the male wage were women paid during the war?
60%
In 1931 there were 100 nurses, how many were there in 1941?
1000
In 1941 there were 1000 nurses, what about in 1931?
100
In 1945, the government withdrew grants for what at the end of the war?
Nurseries
What 1945 act encouraged women to get back to family life?
Family Allowance Act
The 1945 Family Allowance Act granted how much per week for every child?
25p
Famous historiography quote "Britain is being bombed ____ _______"
into democracy
What % of her wealth did Britain love in World War Two?
25%
How many Britons were killed overall in WWII?
300000
All of Britain's gold and dollar reserves were spent by what year?
1941
How much did the public lend through war bonds? (£b)
8.5
In the 1940s, income tax went up to how much to pay for the war?
50p
How much did Canada generously gift to the UK at the end of the war? ($b)
1
When did the Lend-Lease scheme begin?
1941
How much aid did Britain recieve in total from the Lend-Lease scheme (£b)?
27
What scheme provided war materials and essential supplies which would be returned or repaid at a later date?
Lend-Lease
Pay had to be increased during the war in order to prevent what?
Strikes
How many people were unemployed in 1943
100000
How many people were unemployed in 1939?
1300000
During World War Two, average wages increased by how much?
40%
The Second World War highlighted the issues with what in industries?
inefficiencies
What years of WWII was striking particularly common?
final two
How much did WWII cost the country every single day? (£m)
15
The Second World War highlighted the lack of what?
skilled workers
Full employment was a prerequisite for a what to be successful?
New Jerusalem
Who said "The new Britain Must be planned" in 1941?
Maxwell Fry
What were the plans for the NHS in 1944 called?
The White Paper
Who put forward The White Paper NHS proposals in 1944?
Ministry of Health
What book highlighted that the old way of doing things wasn't working in 1940?
Guilty Men
How many copies did "Guilty Men" sell in 1940?
200000
Who were the "Guilty Men"
Baldwin and Chamberlain
The condition of many evacuees, especially from the poorer areas, helped to sway what?
Public opinion
Dunkirk showed what?
military unpreparedness
By June 1943, opinion polls showed Labour were ahead by what %?
10%
What was the Conservative campaign built around?
Churchill
Britain's ration book and evacuation are examples of what kind of society?
egalitarian
What did millions of people listen to on Sunday evenings (dominated mostly by Socialist opinions)
Postscripts
What successful planned society reached great heights in 1942 and heavily influenced British public opinion in favour of creating a planned society?
Soviet Russia
The Fact that wages and working conditions actually increased, health improving, and free school meals being introduced as a result of the war has been described as a what?
Paradox
Who was running the home front in Britain during WWII?
Clement Attlee
Which political party was at the heart of the public mood during WWII?
Labour
Who said that post war Britain must be "attuned to our ideals"?
Clement Attlee
What year was the Labour manifesto released that set out the fight not just against Nazism, but for a better post war Britain?
1939
Attlee, Bevin, and Morrison, in the war cabinet, are also referred to as what?
The Big Three
What unpopular policy were Labour credited with dismantling in the War Cabinet?
The means test
In what year was the Beveridge Report published?
1942
"In his recommendations, he proposed a unification of the existing schemes of social insurance, which would safeguard the whole population against the normal interruptions of working life - unemployment, ill-health, and old age."

Who is this?
Beveridge
1. The provision of a National Health Service.
2. The maintenance of full employment.
3. A system of family allowances

What are these the fundamentals of?
The Beveridge Report
What were the 5 giants?
Want, Disease, Squalor, Ignorance, Idleness
What year was the National Health Service Act passed?
1946
What services could Britons receive free of charge under the NHS?
Dental and optical
What had the Conservatives failed to provide for veterans after WWI, despite their promises?
Homes fit for heroes
Which party benefited the most from the public swing of opinion towards an egalitarian society in the Second World War?
Labour
"And Now - Win the Peace" What party used this as an election slogan in the 1945 election?
Labour
Which party had an election campaign that centred around the theme of peace, people and progression in the 1945 general election?
Labour
"Help them finish their job" Which party had this as an election slogan in 1945?
Labour
In 1945, which party had an election campaign that was centred around their party's leader?
Conservative
"Help him finish the job" Which party had this as an election slogan in the 1945 general election?
Conservative
1945 General Election slogan: "Confirm your confidence in ______"
Churchill
Confidence in Churchill was high - but so many people voting for Labour was indicative of the public's desire for _______.
Reform
Some historians argue that as WWII was now over, there was simply no more pragmatic need for ________.
Churchill
Which crucial politician only supported the Beveridge Report with great reluctance - shown by their campaign?
Churchill
Over what % of votes did Labour get in the 1945 general election?
60%
What % of votes did the Conservatives win in the 1945 general election?
30%
• Result can be divided between positive factors to explain Labour's victory and negative reasons for the Con defeat.
• Change of mood within the nation.
• Labour well organised and had effective strategy, with popular policies.
• Labour leadership and experience in the war time Cabinet.
• Conservative failings, including leadership.
• Poor Conservative campaign.
• Conservative policy lacked depth and was uninspiring
• Conservatives could not shake their label as the 'nasty party'.

What year was this general election?
1945
What was Churchill's approval rating in 1945?
83%
"Labour would have to fall back on some sort of ______" said Churchill in his 1945 campaign.
gestapo
Labour attacked the Conservatives for failing to tackle the economy and _____.
Hitler
Labour attacked the Conservatives for failing to tackle the ______ and Hitler.
Economy
How many copies of the Beveridge report had actually sold by the end of the war?
630000
"Homes for the people, not mansions for the few" What party used this as a slogan?
Labour
Labour's manifesto appealed to who that it hadn't appealed to in previous years?
Middle classes
Who seemed dated, having suffered from a heart attack and pneumonia?
Winston Churchill
Who's speech warned of the 'dangers of utopianism'?
Winston Churchill
By-election results and opinion polls had highlighted the shift to the ___ even before the end of the war?
left
Which 1944 by-election is an example of a 'litmus-test' where an Independent won?
West Derbyshire