106 terms

How Successful was Clement Attlee's Labour Government of 1945-1951? (New Jerusalem)

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

What were the Five Giants?
Want, Disease, Squalor, Ignorance, Idleness
What was the 1945 Labour manifesto based off of?
The Beveridge Report
What act did Labour introduce in 1945 to tackle want?
Family Allowance Act
When was the National Insurance Act introduced?
1946
What was the 1946 Act that ensured citizens would be looked after by the government?
National Insurance Act
Which act allowed for the provision of unemployment benefit, retirement pensions, widow and maternity benefits?
National Insurance Act
When were the NHS white papers published?
1944
When was the National Health Service Act passed?
1946
When did the National Health Service actually come into fruition?
1948
Charges for dental and optical care were introduced in what year?
1951
Who resigned in 1951, partly as a result of NHS prescription charges?
Aneurin Bevan
The plan to pay for the NHS from National Insurance contributions did not work and __% of the cost had to be paid for from ordinary taxes.
90%
Financial pressures meant that old hospitals were not modernised until when?
1960s
By 1950, how many people had gotten glasses? (m)
17
What NHS facility wiped out many horrible diseases like TB?
vaccinations
What types of homes did the government focus on building after the war?
Prefabs
How many homes did the Labour government aim to build per year at the end of the war?
200000
How many new towns were planned under the New Towns Act 1946?
14
What was the 1946 act called that aimed to support Britain's increasing population/housing crisis?
New Towns Act
When was the New Towns Act introduced?
1946
Labour's achievements in the 1945-1950 period is ultimately not as successful as the Conservatives pre-war or even in the ____.
1950s
What year was the tripartite system introduced?
1944
What was the act called in 1944 that established the tripartite system?
Butler Education Act
Under the Butler Education Act, education was free until what age?
15
What examination was introduced under the Butler Education Act?
11+
People that passed the 11+ went to Grammar Schools or:
Senior secondary schools
The Butler Education Act opened up secondary education to who?
girls
Milk, meals and medical services were provided for free in schools from what year?
1944
Children who failed the 11+ were expected to continue in school past the age of 15.

True of False?
False
By 1946, unemployment had been reduced to what %?
2.5%
What kind of economy did Labour's nationalisation create?
Mixed
Which of Beveridge's five giants benefited the most from Britain's rebuilding - and action taken in the other giants?
Idleness
Following the principles of which economist, the government took control of industries in 1945?
Keynes
He hated Herbert Morrison and Attlee had to make efforts to keep them both apart. He represented the power of organised labour in government and was the only one capable of replacing Attlee. However he was very loyal.
Ernest Bevin
He had rejoined the party in 1945 and was seen as a technocrat rather than a socialist. He had an upper class background and was a devout vegetarian and Anglican. It was claimed he had "all the political judgement of a flea".
Stafford Cripps
Was described as a loud, opinionated and indiscreet, with an upper class background. Was seen as a class traitor, with Conservatives claiming he wanted to introduce socialism to take revenge on the wealthier classes. He was devoted to the introduction of socialist policies particularly redistributive taxation.
Hugh Dalton
His wide ranging responsibilities led him to be seen as the Deputy PM. He was responsible for coordinating domestic policy, was committed to appealing to the middle classes and had been the man behind the Labour manifesto of 1945.
Herbert Morrison
His wide ranging responsibilities led him to be seen as Deputy PM. He was responsible for coordinating domestic policy, committed to appealing to the middle classes and had been the man behind the Labour Manifesto of 1945.
Aneurin Bevan
How much had national debt increased during World War Two?
3x
What % of National wealth had Britain lost during the war?
25%
What was the payments deficit of Britain at the end of the war? (£m)
750
Keynes warned the chancellor that Britain was facing a ____?
Financial dunkirk
What year was Britain's annus horrendous?
1947
When was Britain loaned $3.75b by the USA?
1946
How many years was it planned to take to pay off the Anglo-American loan?
50
How much Marshall Aid did Britain receive in total? ($b)
13
When did the Marshall Plan start?
1948
How much of the loan had Britain spent only 1.5 years after the $3.75b loan from the USA?
50%
How much was Britain loaned by the USA in 1946? ($b)
3.75
What year highlighted Attlee's lack of economic ability?
1947
Who resigned in 1947?
Hugh Dalton
Who gained the most out of Hugh Dalton's resignation, becoming Minister of Economic Affairs?
Stafford Cripps
What % of total Marshall Aid did Britain receive in the end?
25%
What country did the UK pull out of in the 1940s?
Palestine
What country did the UK pull out of in the 1940s except for Palestine?
Greece
What country did Attlee argue was a financial liability for Britain?
India
What organisation did Attlee hand a lot of control over international affairs to in the 1940s?
UN
What year did Britain leave India?
1947
In the 1947 annus horrendous, shares fell by how much?
10%
Cuts of how much were made in November 1949? (£m)
120
"The gains so painfully achieved between 1945 and 1950 were almost entirely eclipsed in the public mind".

Who said this? (Surname)
Adelman
"Rationing continued throughout the 1940s and did not end after the war."

True or False?
True
Which foodstuffs were eventually taken off rationing?
Bread and potatoes
In 1946 how many cinema tickets were sold? (m)
1.65
The 1940s payments deficit was wiped out by:?
1948
What was the average % rate of unemployment between 1948 and 1950?
1.6%
Exports rose by over what % between 1946-1951?
75%
By what year, Britain no longer needed Marshall Aid?
1950
In the Attlee New Jerusalem era, real wages rose by what %?
6%
42% of imports into the UK came from America in the 1940s, but what % went there?
14%
What was a setback in 1950, as defense spending rose?
Korean War
What was Britain forced to join in 1947 in order to get an American loan?
General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade
"Common ownership of the means of production, distribution, and exchange".

What clause was this?
Clause 4
Six years of total war had left a public belief in this policy - what policy?
Nationalisation
The state could force changes for the best of the industry - what policy?
Nationalisation
There was almost no opposition to the nationalisation of what?
Bank of England
Which huge company was nationalised in 1947?
Cable and Wireless
How much were coal mine owners paid in the formation of the National Coal Board? (£m)
164
When was Gas and Electricity Nationalised?
1948
What was established as part of the nationalisation of Gas and Electricity?
Regional boards
How many regional boards were created as part of the nationalisation of Gas and Electricity?
14
How many miles of railway were set up by the Government under Attlee's New Jerusalem?
52000
How many miles of Canal were created under Attlee's New Jerusalem?
2000
What industry was nationalising most controversial by far, especially as it was actually profitable?
Iron and steel
Who supported the nationalisation of coal, but not iron and steel
Unions
Nationalisation of iron and steel did not actually take effect until what year?
1951
How many companies were taken over with the nationalisation of iron and steel?
107
By 1950, more than how many people worked in nationalised industries?
2000000
"Everybody won from nationalisation, the people got the profits and the owners got _____"
£164m
"Helped the economic conditions - export markets were so under pressure, and the government owning key industries helped the industries focus their efforts into improving balance of payments and stabilising wages to improve the economy."

What is this policy known as?
Nationalisation
There are arguments nationalisation cost money that Britain couldn't afford - how much did nationalisation cost in total? (£m)
2700
Nationalisation meant that instead of mine owners being blamed for poor conditions, the ______ was instead.
government
"It was fought tooth and nail by the opposition and was thrashed out in the cabinet, was only reaffirmed and lengthy argument, the bill was then again deferred until 1948, and didn't come into effect until 1951, on the eve of the Tory electoral victory."

What industry is this discussing?
Iron and steel
The problems of the industries did not vanish overnight, one historian commented that "they were more of a _______ than an asset to the government". (In reference to the Labour Nationalisation policy)
Liability
The proposals were bitterly resented by the Conservative party, opposed by steelmasters, and split the cabinet. Morrison was the leading opponent, arguing it would be unpopular with the electorate, whereas _____ was the leading supporter (on the grounds of socialist commitment).
Bevan
Despite best efforts for nationalisation, over what % of British industry remained non nationalised by 1950?
80%
Half hearted nationalism with lots of mining boards ran by the ex mine-owners led to the nationalisation scheme being referred to as what?
State capitalism
Despite initial criticism, the Conservatives made no efforts to dismantle what?
Mixed economy
Nationalisation meant conditions for workers in what industry were significantly improved?
Mining
During the Attlee 'New Jerusalem' government, coal output rose by what %?
20%
Who argued that further nationalisation would improve power relationships in society?
Aneurin Bevan
What board was criticised as being 'Semi-Autonomous' (nationalisation issues)
National Coal Board
How much did the NHS cost in its first year? (£m)
400
Who founded the NHS "on authentic socialist principles"
Aneurin Bevan
What fell dramatically post 1948 as a result of the NHS?
Infant mortality
There is not a wealth of evidence tying the NHS to the increase in public health; although the NHS undoubtedly had a very large impact, other factors such as better housing, better ____, and employment meant that conditions were improving dramatically anyway.
diet