162 terms

The Conservative Governments of 1951-1964

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The _____ saw the early stages of pressure from educationalists and politicians to end the 'tripartite' system by which children were sent to different schools following the 'eleven plus'.
1950s
Critics of the system argued that it restricted extended education and therefore social mobility to a subset of pupils (who went to Grammar Schools), and moreover that this minority was disproportionately middle class.

What is being criticised here?
Tripartite system
What was criticised as being a test of social background more than academic progress?
11+
When was the 11+ introduced?
1944
Less controversially, suggestions were made that the 11+ was _________ damaging to limit the extended education of so much of the workforce.
economically
It was proposed by these critics that Grammar, Secondary Modern and Technical Schools should be merged into _________ _______, which would admit children of all abilities.
Comprehensive schools
Which report by the Conservative party in 1959 reflected views supporting the formation of more comprehensive schools?
Crowther Report
Opinion polls showed the 11+ was increasingly unpopular, but the Conservatives were split amongst deciding to stop the 11+ and their suspicions of egalitarian '_____ ______'.
Social engineering
In 1962, out of 146 LEAs, how many were working towards a transition to comprehensive education?
90
How many LEAs were there in the UK in 1962s?
146
What approach did the Conservatives take towards LEAs requests to transition to a comprehensive school system from 1962 onwards?
Laissez-faire
In 1951 there were only how many Comprehensive schools?
20
By the time Edward Boyle came to office, most LEAs were abandoning the tripartite system and moving towards comp schools. What year was this?
1962
What % of the population was in Comp Education in 1960?
4%
What % of the population was in Comp Education by 1970?
31%
Who said in 1964 that "Grammar Schools will be closed over my dead body."?
Harold Wilson
Which parties leader said in 1964 that "Grammar Schools will be closed over my dead body."?
Labour
Would closing the grammar schools be popular with Conservative voters?
No
Which Conservative argued that the 11+ was an unfair method of measuring intelligence because you can "acquire intelligence"?
Edward Boyle
What had the Conservatives invested heavily in, which would be a wasted investment if more people did not get into better education?
Universities
Give an example of a University Established during the 1950s/1960s Conservative reign
York
How many homes were destroyed or made uninhabitable during World War Two?
500000
Of all the areas covered by the Beveridge Report it was _______ which represented the greatest and most immediate problem when the time came in 1945 to implement the report.
Squalor
At the end of the war, where were most of the men required to help solve Britain's housing crisis?
Armed forces
The issue of squalor wasn't helped by the fact that ________ children were being born every year during World War Two.
3000000
What did politicians from both sides promise people after the war? (Squalor)
Homes for every family
How many people had turned to empty war camps as a result of no housing being available to them post WWII? (Squalor)
40000
What kind of houses were introduced to help mitigate the post WWII housing crisis?
pre-fab
How many people agreed that housing was the greatest issue facing Great Britain after the war, according to opinion polls?
90%
What did councils lack post WWII that made it very difficult to build houses, even though they wanted to?
Materials and labour
What were most builders repairing that made it hard to build newer homes post WWII?
Old homes
Some people had to wait this long for a new house post WWII.
8 years
In 1945-1949 Labour built 588000 new homes. What happened to this rate in the next half decade (1950-1954)
Doubled
What was the rate of house building from 1960-64 compared to under Labour in 1945-1949?
Triple
How many new homes did Labour build in the 1945-1949 period? (Give precise figure)
588000
Who was Minister of Housing 1951-1954?
Harold Macmillan
When was Harold Macmillan the Minister of Housing?
1951-1954
How many homes did Harold Macmillan promise to build under the Conservatives (each year)?
300000
Did Harold Macmillan stick to his promise to build 300000 new homes per year?
Yes
Who proudly presented the keys to the millionth council house tenant?
Harold Macmillan
When were subsidies for council house subsidies first introduced by the Conservatives after WWII?
1951
What did the Conservatives allow local councils to do that Labour did not? (They hoped this would speeden up house building)
Hire contractors
What act of 1924 did the Conservatives encourage post WWII (particularly Neville Chamberlain)
Wheatley Housing Act
Which party had failed to meet its own house building targets because of targets that were too strict?
Labour
The Conservative party agreed with Labour's New Towns Act, which made towns like Milton Keynes. What did they disagree with?
How long it was taking
Red tape surrounding housing policy was a common criticism of which minister?
Aneurin Bevan
During the late 1940s, who squatted in the East End, much to the embarrassment of the state (there was lots of media coverage)
Communists
What kind of accommodation did the Conservatives build more of in order to meet the housing quota that they set themselves?
High rise
The great social revolution of the 1950s and 1960s was what the Conservatives referred to as a: ?
Property owning democracy
Prior to the 1950s/1960s, renting was the most common way of paying for accommodation in Britain. But in this era, what kind of property payment became the majority for the first time?
Owner-occupier
Give an example of a trivial issue that Aneurin Bevan is criticised for enforcing in his home building requirements.
High ceilings
When did private home building take over public home builder under the Conservatives?
1954
In regards to housing, did the Conservatives continue with the majority of Attlee's policies on housing?
Yes
What was the budget deficit when the Conservatives came to power in 1951? (£m)
700
What was the trade surplus one year after coming to power in 1952? (£m)
259
When did rationing finally come to an end under the Conservatives?
1954
How did the Conservatives win the 1951 general election?

1) Popular vote or 2) First Past the Post System
2
How much did real wages increase by in the 1951-1955 period under the Conservatives?
10%
Despite their successes, the critics of this time set out the failures as the following:

• Introduced harshest rationing ever seen, further cuts on imports, credit, travel allowances, subsidies were seen.
• Some rationing continued for years.
• Government made no efforts to try and slow down inflation, and improve productivity.

What period of government is this critical of?
1951-1955
Real income increased by at least __% in the 1950s. People had lots of disposable income for the first time.
40%
Between 1950-1960, National income increased from £10.8b to £__?
£20.8b
What was the GPD of Britain in 1950?
£10.8b
What was the GDP of Britain in 1960?
£20.8b
In the 1950s, unemployment did rise, but by less than _____?
100000
How much was income tax cut by before the 1959 general election?
4p
Who famously said "They've never had it so good"?
Harold Macmillan
In what year were Britain's balance of payments in their worst state since 1951?
1960
Employment rose to what in 1963
900000
There was a record deficit of £715m under the Conservatives in what year?
1963
What was the shock budget deficit in 1963? (£m)
715
What was the rate of inflation in the early 1960s?
5%
What stopped Public Sector workers getting pay increases in the early 1960s, despite the rate of inflation being 5%?
Pay Pause
The fact that there were _ chancellors in the 1960-1964 period showed the Conservative's inability to handle the economic situation.
3
Macmillan's long term plan to deal with the 1960-1964 problems was to firstly impose austerity (stop/go economy) then to DO WHAT as a longer term solution.
Join the EEC
In the 1951-1964 Conservative period of rule, when was Winston Churchill P.M?
1951-1955
He was suffering from old age and had just had a stroke, so he naturally couldn't run the government as tightly as Attlee could.

Who is this?
Winston Churchill
His political outlook was cautious and undogmatic. He proclaimed in 1951 "What we need is a period of steady, stable administration... healing and revival".

Who is this?
Winston Churchill
He generally supported Labour's policies of welfare and employment reform, even the policy of nationalisation was not to be discontinued immediately.

Who is this?
Winston Churchill
Which years of the Conservative ascendency are regarded as being a success because of the industrial peace?
1951-1955
Indicative of prosperity, commercial TV was first introduced in this year.
1954
Labour previously argued that the Conservatives were out to destroy the welfare state, but during these years they increased spending on the welfare state dramatically.
1951-1955
Who made savage cuts at the start of the 1951-1955 period, such as increasing the bank rate and making meat rations even harsher?
Butler
Falling import prices were an external factor that caused some of the economic prosperity in the 1950s. Give another external factor.
The Korean War
The Korean War was an external factor that caused some of the economic prosperity in the 1950s. Give another external factor.
Falling import prices
Shortage of hospital provisions became very apparent in the 1950s, as a result of _______ ____.
funding gaps
Who was frustrated with Churchill's long stay in office (1951-1955)
Anthony Eden
Butler and Macmillan were given influential roles in the 1951-1955 cabinet. This was important because they were ______ ?
reformists
What role did Anthony Eden have in parliament in 1951-1955?
Foreign Secretary
What role did Anthony Eden have in parliament in 1955-1957
Prime Minister
When was Anthony Eden prime minister?
1955-1957
"He proved to be a particularly good and interesting campaigner, particularly on television, where (in the words of one newspaper) 'he managed to convey a sense of calmness, optimism, decency and compassion'. In comparison the ageing Attlee appeared a dim and out-of-date figure, and the Labour party itself - riven by the disputes between the Bevanites and their opponents - was incapable of mounting an effective challenge."

Who is this?
Anthony Eden
"Even the Labour opposition was impressed, he looked young despite being 58 and came across as the epitome of an English gentleman."

Who is this?
Anthony Eden
"His lack of experience and expertise in the domestic field was an issue; he was a man with roots in foreign policy."

Who is this?
Anthony Eden
"He made no real changes to reform Churchill's cabinet, only two changes were made in the cabinet. It stemmed from this that he developed a reputation of lacking real leadership qualities."

Who is this?
Anthony Eden
What was Anthony Eden's approval rating in 1955, according to polls ?
70%
What was Anthony Eden's approval rating in 1956, according to polls ?
40%
Between 1955-1956, Anthony Eden's public approval rating fell by how much?
30%
One historian said he 'lacked the prime ministerial temperament'

Who is this?
Anthony Eden
What did one historian say of Anthony Eden?
He lacked the prime ministerial temperament
The latter two years of his premiership were riddled with scandals including bad speeches in parliament and the Suez affair.
Anthony Eden
How many votes did Labour lose in the 1951 election?
1500000
What majority did the Conservatives have in the 1951 election?
58
This issue polarised public opinion during the 1950s, proceedings in parliament had to be paused for 30 minutes over bad tempers.
Suez Affair
What was the swing against Labour in the 1951 election?
4%
How did one colleague describe Anthony Eden?
Nervy, jumpy, and bad mannered
We all know the Suez Affair split opinion drastically. How many MPs actually felt that Anthony Eden was being too lenient with Nasser?
50
Who resigned in 1957 over ill health?
Anthony Eden
Who was PM between 1957-1964?
Harold MacMillan
How was Harold MacMillan referred to by the press/public?
Supermac
He was an ambitious and professional politician. Ever since the outbreak of war he had a reputation for being a reformist. He had an exceptional ability to combine the old with the new, which gave him an appeal with various sectors of the community.

Who is this?
Harold MacMillan
He maintained a good relationship with the USA, and managed to convince the electorate that "They've never had it so good".
Harold MacMillan
When was Harold Macmillan Prime Minister?
1957-1964
When was the next UK general election after Anthony Eden's resignation?
1959
Who won the 1959 General Election?
Conservatives
Who was the Conservative's candidate at the time of the 1959 General Election?
Harold MacMillan
Who was the leader of the Labour party at the time of the 1959 General Election?
Hugh Gaitskell
The Conservatives got almost how many more votes than Labour in the 1959 general election?
1500000
Despite the Conservative victory of 1959, Labour won over __ of the national vote.
46%
Most surprisingly of all in the 1959 election, a swing towards the Liberals was shown for the first time in decades. How great was this swing?
3%
A problem with Conservative education, even in the late 1950s was that only a limited number of people were going where?
Univeristy
How high was unemployment by the end of 1962?
800000
The private sector continued to offer pay increases, and the Conservative pay pause broke down after angering the public greatly. But what year was the public sector pay pause?
1961
What is Macmillan's drastic cabinet reshuffle of 1962 sometimes referred to as?
Night of the Long Knives
Opinion polls showed that resistance from Labour was becoming more and more apparent and challenging the Conservative era by what year?
1963
This led to Macmillan being called 'ruthless and opportunistic' by the opposition.
Night of the Long Knives
Failures in what prompted Macmillan to run his 'Night of the Long Knives'
Local elections
What was the 'nail in the coffin' for Macmillan?
The Profumo Affair
Who did the Conservatives continue to get support from in the 1957 general election, especially in London/Midlands.
Middle class
He liked to risk higher inflation rather than risk higher unemployment; this bought him into conflict with the Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Who is this?
Harold Macmillan
When in the Conservative era were sharp deflationary measures deemed necessary by the chancellor?
1958
What was the bank rate raised to in 1958?
7%
What was the bank rate in 1958 before it was raised?
5%
How many cuts were enforced in 1958? (£m)
150
Was no longer a good public speaker, one of the main reasons he was forced to step down because he was so ill.

Who is this?
Winston Churchill
Within a year he was caught up in Nasser's suez crisis, he drew analogies between Nasser and Hitler. He sent in troops very shortly after the War without American backing, public opinion not in favour of him.

Who is this?
Anthony Eden
This was said to have cost $300m in gold and dollar reserves, consumer spending was very high too which also led to more inflation.
Suez Affair
He continued Labour policies and continued to move towards 'New Conservatism', but had a weak character and couldn't stand up
Anthony Eden
In 1960 he toured the commonwealth, Africa in particular, he made it clear he would not act to block the ending of the empire.

Who is this?
Harold Macmillan
Who vetoed Britain's entry into Europe in 1963?
Charles De Gaulle
Ran into trouble with the treasury - he believed that Government could and should spend money. Three ministers disapproved of this and there was a growing descent between the Chancellor and him.

Who was this?
Harold Macmillan
Served as Prime Minister for 6 years.
Harold Macmillan
Discussion about his resignation was met by mass firings in the cabinet, essentially anyone that could be a succeeder, this terrified his colleagues and shocked commentators.

Who is this?
Harold Macmillan
______ ________ was the key reason for the Conservative dominance in the years 1951-1964, more people had consumer goods than ever before and life was becoming increasingly easy, the continuation of the welfare state, particularly from the more liberal 'supermac' meant that people in Britain had, as MacMillan himself put it "never had it so good". No need for change.
Economic prosperity
Despite 1951-64 being seen by some as Britain's best years, Britain's share of world trade fell from 25% to ___ indicating that underlying issues with Britain's economy were never fixed.
13%
Between 1951-1964, what happened to Britain's share of world trade?
Halved
Between 1951-1964, industrialisation happened 4x faster in Japan and ______ than in Britain.
Germany
Adelman commented that was an "Unremitting period of economic decline".

What years was he referring to?
1951-1964
Impact of "_____" policies caused big economic failures and failed to tackle real issues.
stop-go
At what rate did the economy grow between 1951-1964 (Hint: 3x the pre-war period)
3%
Home ownership reached what % during Conservative era?
44%
What was home ownership % before the Conservative era?
25%
What did the historian Blake call the period of the 1950s?
A golden age
Throughout the entire Conservative era, unemployment stayed below what?
2%
A historian said of the Conservative era, that this was a period where "Living standards had risen faster than at any time since the __________".
First World War
This election has been described by many since as one of the "dullest" post war elections, because there was little change in the country.

Give the year.
1955
Labour was steadily losing ground owing to infighting. This was due to Nye Bevan, who had initiated a split in the party between the left (Bevanites) and the right (Gaitskellites). Resulting in an unclear election message from the Labour party.

Give the year of this general election.
1955
• The Conservatives won with a convincing majority. They had over 60 more seats than Labour.
• Despite this, Labour retained over 48% of the National vote, Conservatives had only 0.8% more of the popular vote than Labour.

Give the year of this election.
1955
• Gaitskell's weak opposition - despite them joining (no longer being divided) - Supermac had too much TV presence, and Gaitskell made a blunder saying Labour would have no tax increases, yet wanted to expand expenditure.
• There was no compelling reason to vote Labour, "you never had it so good" - prosperity argument.

Give the year of the relevant election.
1959
• Alec-Douglas Home vs. Harold Wilson - results were - Cons got 43.4% of the Vote, with 304 seats. Labour got 44.1% of the vote, winning 317 seats. Liberals won 11.2% of the vote, Labour majority of 4 seats.

Give the year of this election.
1964
• The Conservatives can be summed up as "fear for change" vs "Time for change" of Labour.

Give the year of this election.
1964
He was transparent and honest, but lacked new ideas and only stressed the previous success of the Tories; the public was becoming tired of the same old Tory policies and desired change.

Who is this?
Alec Douglas-Home
How many seats did Labour win by in the 1964 election?
4