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Chapter 5 Part 2
The Bohr model was built on ________ and _______'s concepts of quantized energy
Plank and Einstein
The Bohr model shows that a ______ orbit has _____ energy and that a ______ orbit has ______ energy
Ground state is the ________ energy
Excited state is the _____ energy
The Bohr model assigned a ______ to each possible _____ and called it a ______
What is represented by the variable n?
What is the closest orbit to the nucleus?
When an electron loses energy it goes to a _______ orbit releasing a ______ of energy
What is the difference between the Bohr model and the quantum mechanical model?
The Bohr model didn't......
-didn't describe all types of elements
-didn't account for chemical behavior of atoms
What did de Broglie do?
-figured out that electrons can travel as waves just like light
-all moving particles have wave characteristics
What is the Heisenberg uncertainty principle?
-cannot know exactly where and how fast an electron is moving at the same time
What is shown in the quantum mechanical model?
-energy of electrons is quantized
-electrons exhibit wavelike behavior
-electrons position and momentum cannot simultaneously be known
-describes the probable location of electrons around the nucleus
Principle energy levels can be divided into ________
Number of sublevels=___________
principle quantum number
What are the 4 different types of sublevels in order?
s, p, d, f
Which sublevel is spherical shaped?
Which sublevel is dumbbell shaped?
Which sublevel are 4 shaped the same and 1 different?
Which sublevel's shape is complex and multi-lobed?
Each sublevel type contains ______
An _______ is the actual location of an electron
s=___ orbital, ___ electrons
p=___ orbital, ___ electrons
d=___ orbital, ___ electrons
f=___ orbital, ___ electrons
The arrangement of electrons in an atom
What is Aufbau principle?
electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy before orbitals of higher energy
What is Pauli exclusion principle?
each orbital can hold 2 electrons with opposite spins
What rule is an orbital containing 2 up arrows breaking?
Pauli exclusion principle
What is Hund's rule?
within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them ("empty bus seat rule")
What rule is filling up the 1st orbital in a sublevel before the next orbital has at least one arrow breaking?
Which configuration shows all orbitals and arrows?
Which configuration shows sublevels with a superscript for amounts of electrons?
Which configuration uses the noble gas on the periodic table closest to that element?
noble gas notation
What is the outer energy level or the biggest number in an electron configuration?
What are the electrons on the inside of the configuration?
The group number= the number of __________ _________
In the electron dot structure, the symbol represents the _____ _______
In the electron dot structure, the dots represent the ______ _________
The number of valence electrons is equal to the _____ ______
What principle is used when deciding what order to go in when doing electron configuration?
a three-dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location
states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and Planck's constant
de Broglie equation
the arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rules-the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's rule
consists of an element's symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom's valence electrons
the energy levels contained within a principal energy level
the lowest allowable energy state of an atom
states that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbital
states that a maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins
Pauli exclusion principle
the major energy levels of an atom
principal energy level
assigned by the quantum mechanical model to indicate the relative sizes and energies of atomic orbitals
principal quantum number
an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom
quantum mechanical model of the atom
the number assigned to each orbit of an electron
the electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals; determines the chemical properties of an element
According to the Bohr model, how do electrons move in atoms?
Electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus
What is the difference between an atom's ground state and an excited state?
ground state is the lowest energy while higher energy is considered to be the excited state
What is the maximum number of electrons an orbitals can contain?
Why does a rubidium atom occupy the 5s orbital rather than a 4f or 4d orbital?
The orbital related to the 5s sublevel has a lower energy than 4d and 4f
What are valence electrons?
The electrons in an atom's outer energy level