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APES Mock 2
Terms in this set (30)
An environmental gradient is a gradual change in abiotic factors through space (or time). Environmental gradients can be related to factors such as altitude, temperature, depth, ocean proximity and soil humidity.
the inevitable elimination from a habitat of one of two different species with identical needs for resources.
community level effect
Although facilitation is often studied at the level of individual species interactions (mutualism, commensalism, predation, etc.), the effects of facilitation are often observable at the scale of the community, including impacts to spatial structure, diversity, and invasibility.
(also known as industrial agriculture) is characterized by a low fallow ratio and higher use of inputs such as capital and labour per unit land area.
burning of fossil fuels
What human activity releases sulfur?
first was Yellowstone (1872)
for preservation of views, unique landforms, science, education, recreation, aesthetic use
each park adapts policies to special needs
NPS manages 391+
Hunting, commercial fishing, livestock grazing, mining and logging prohibited
sustained use of resource ((lumber)
open to commercial activities (logging, livestock) and recreational activities
national wildlife refuge
to protect wildlife
FWS manages 450+
allows hunting, fishing
national wilderness area
limited human use, no roads, no logging, no mining. Some allow hunting/fishing
an association between two organisms in which one benefits and the other derives neither benefit nor harm.
the chemical processes by which atmospheric nitrogen is assimilated into organic compounds, especially by certain microorganisms as part of the nitrogen cycle.
a microbially facilitated process of nitrate reduction (performed by a large group of heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria) that may ultimately produce molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.
cleanup of areas such as brown-fields, nuclear waste sites
most abundant gas in the atmosphere (79% of atmosphere)
An estimate of the maximum capacity of living things to survive and reproduce under optimal environmental conditions.
where is most of the nitrogen on earth stored?
where is most of the sulfur on earth stored?
net primary productivity
is the rate at which plants incorporate atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis
The rate at which an ecosystem accumulates energy or biomass, excluding the energy it uses for the process of respiration. This typically corresponds to the rate of photosynthesis, minus respiration by the photosynthesizers.
percent of earth's water that is drinkable/freshwater
The third largest extinction in Earth's history, this mass extinction had two peak dying times separated by hundreds of thousands of years. Most life was in the sea, so it was sea creatures such as trilobites, brachiopods and graptolites that were drastically reduced in number.
Three quarters of all species on Earth died out in this mass extinction, though it may have been a series of extinctions over several million years, rather than a single event. Life in the shallow seas were the worst affected, and reefs took a hammering, not returning to their former glory until new types of coral evolved over 100 million years later.
This mass extinction has been nicknamed The Great Dying, since a staggering 96% of species died out. All life on Earth today is descended from the 4% of species that survived.
During the final 18 million years of the Triassic period, there were two or three phases of extinction whose combined effects created this mass extinction event. Climate change, flood basalt eruptions and an asteroid impact have all been blamed for this loss of life.
This mass extinction - also known as the K/T extinction - is famed for the death of the dinosaurs. However, many other organisms perished at the end of the Cretaceous including the ammonites, many flowering plants and the last of the pterosaurs.
conservation of energy
first law of thermodynamics/energy
formed by the reaction of sunlight with sunlight and nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ozone or peroxyacetyl compounds
water vapor, CO2, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, halocarbons
the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches.
the world's largest energy source is...
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