Chapter 27- Water, Electrolyte, & Acid-Base Balance
Terms in this set (56)
kidneys, lungs, GI tract, and skin
Maintenance of water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance involves what four things?
The fluid that is inside of the cell walls is called ___.
The fluid that is outside of the cell walls is called ___.
Intracellular fluid (ICF) makes up about ___ of the total body weight of a person.
Extracellular fluid (ECF) makes up about ___ of the total body weight of a person.
What element is the major intracellular cation?
What element is the major extracellular cation?
Na+ is responsible for about ___ of osmotic pressure within the extracellular fluid.
When there is an increase of Na+, osmolity increases which makes water move into the extracellular fluid to dilute the increase of Na+ molecules. This in turn increases blood volume which increases ___.
When blood pressure is too high, ANP levels increase which lead to an increase of Na+ ___ and water loss. This process then lowers blood pressure.
When osmolity is too high and blood pressure is too low, ADH is released which increases water ___ therefore lowering osmolity and increasing blood pressure.
The primary organ controlling Na+ within the extracellular fluid is the ___. Ca2+/P concentrations are controlled here.
With hypersecretion of aldosterone, there is an increase of blood Na+ levels known as ___.
With hyposecretion of aldosterone, there is a decrease of blood Na+ levels known as ___.
With hyposecretion of aldosterone, there is an increase of blood K+ levels known as ___.
With hypersecretion of aldosterone, there is a decrease of blood K+ levels known as ___.
The primary extracellular anion is ___. It is attracted to Na+ and passively follows Na+ movement.
With an increase of K+ in the extracellular fluid, ___ occurs.
With a decrease of K+ in the extracellular fluid, ___ occurs.
PTH and calcitonin control ___ levels.
PTH ___ Ca2+ levels.
Calcitonin ___ Ca2+ levels.
What percent of an adult females body weight is water?
What percent of an adult males body weight is water?
The percent of water weight in adult females is lower than males due to the increased amount of ___.
The percent of water weight in adult males is higher than females due to the increased amount of ___.
urine, feces, and evaporation
Three ways that water can be lost out of the body is ___.
The continual loss of water through the skin is called ___.
The loss of water and ions through the skin is called ___.
The primary hormone in regulating water balance is ___.
The ___ maintains the pH of arterial blood at 7.4 and the pH of venous blood at 7.35.
A lower pH of venous blood is due to an increase of ___.
A(n) ___ is a H+ donor.
A(n) ___ is a H+ acceptor.
Conjugate acid/base pairs that resist or minimize pH levels are called ___.
The pair H2CO3/HCO3- is an important ___ buffer.
The protein buffer system accounts for about ___ of buffering capacity.
In the protein buffer system, amino acids contain a NH3+ group (base) and a COO- (acid) when it is in the ___.
The pair H2PO4-/HPO4 2- is an important ___ buffer that is primary used by the kidney.
Acid-base regulation involves ___ which provides rapid response.
Acid-base regulation involves ___ which is slower acting but has a greater capacity to regulate pH.
In ___ regulation, an increase of pH levels (or decrease in H+) signal a decrease in ___ rate/depth which increases the CO2 accumulation in the blood therefore increasing the H+. (one answer fits both blanks)
In ___ regulation, an increase of pH levels (or decrease in H+) signal for a decrease in H+ secretions and HCO3- reabsorption which decreases pH levels as H+ increases.
A pH of below 7.35 is called ___.
A pH of above 7.45 is called ___.
Respiratory acidosis is due to a decrease of CO2 elimination or ___.
Metabolic acidosis is due to an increase in HCO3- loss or ___ oxygen supply.
Respiratory alkalosis is due to an increase of CO2 elimination or ___.
Metabolic alkalosis is due to ___ H+ loss or reabsorbing too much HCO3-.
With high blood pressure (increase in hydrostatic pressure), glomerular filtration rate is ___.
__ buffers both acids and bases.
H2CO3 is a conjugate __.
__ buffers excess acid in the plasma.
__ concentration has major influence on resting membrane potential (RMP).
ADH & atrial naturetic factor (ANF) are ___ in their actions.
___ ingestion results in decrease in blood pressure.
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