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APUSH Chapter 21

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Emancipation Proclamation
document that proclaimed a war against slavery and guaranteed to fight to the finish
Unconditional Surrender Grant
General US. Grant's nickname, taken from his military demand to the enemy at Fort Donelson and elsewhere
Vicksburg
Crucial Confederate fortress on the Mississippi whose fall to Grant in 1863 cut the South in 2
Battle of Gettysburg
Pennsylvania battle that ended Lee's last hopes of achieving victory through an invasion of the north
Fort Pillow
Mississippi site where black soldiers were massacred after their surrender
Copperheads
Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and sympathized with the South
The Man Without a Country
Edward Everett Hale's story of treason and banishment, inspired by the wartime banishing of the Copperhead Clement Vallandigham
Atlanta
Georgia city captured and burned by Sherman just before the election of 1864
Union Party
the temporary 1864 coalition of Republicans and War Democrats that backed Lincoln's re-election
Ford Theater
Washington site where where Lincoln was assassinated by Booth of April 14, 1865
Appomatox Courthouse
Virginia site where Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865
Lost Cause
Romantic name given to the Southern fight for independence, indicating nobility despite defeat
Bull Run
site of Union defeat in a very early battle of the war
George McClellan
union general who repudiated his party's Copperhead platform and polled 45% of the popular vote in 1864
Robert E. Lee
Southern officer whose failed charge at Gettysburg marked the "high water mark of the Confederacy
Antietam
site of one of Grant's bloodiest battles with the Confederates near Richmond in 1864
"Stonewall" Jackson
daring Southern commander killed at the Battle of Chancellorsville
George Pickett
gentlemanly top commander of the Confederate army
Ulysses S. Grant
Union commander who first made his mark with victories in the West
Gettysburg
site where Lee's last major invasion of the North was turned back
William T. Sherman
Ruthless northern general who waged a march through Georgia
Clement Vallandigham
notorious Copperhead, who ran for governor of Ohio while in exile
Salmon P. Chase
Ambitious secretary of the treasury who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864
The Wilderness
Crucial battle in Maryland that staved off European recognition of the Confederacy
Andrew Johnson
Southern War Democrat who ran as Lincoln's "Union Party" vice-presidential candidate in 1864
John Wilkes Booth
Fanatical actor whose act of violence actually harmed the South