35 terms

# Chapters 10. 17, 18 (heat and energy)

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conduction
transfer of energy by direct contact (touching)
convection
transfer of energy by the circular motion of a liquid or gas
transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves (example: Sun) can go through empty space
conductor
material that lets heat and electricity flow easily (metals)
insulator
material that does not let heat and electricity flow easily (wood/rubber)
heat
transfer of energy between two objects at different temperatures
temperature
measure (usually with a thermometer) of the average kinetic energy of particles in an object
absolute zero
the coldest temperature possible, where all molecular motion stops
Celsius
temperature scale most scientists use based on water freezing at 0 degrees and boiling at 100 degrees
Fahrenheit
temperature scale most people in the U.S. use, based on water freezing at 32 degrees and boiling at 212 degrees
thermal expansion
increase in volume of a substance because of an increase in its temperature
greenhouse effect
also called global warming, where we produce too much greenhouse gases and it traps heat overheating the earth
expansion joints
gaps in bridges and roads to allow for thermal expansion
discharge
release of electricity stored in a source
magnet
any object that attracts iron or materials containing iron
magnetic field lines
invisible lines that form from the magnetic field produced in a magnet
poles
ends of a magnet (this is where the magnetic force is strongest in a magnet)
Law of Electric Charges
Law that states that opposite charges attract one another and like charges repel one another
magnetic force
a force that all magnets exert or produce
two
the number of poles a magnet always has, even if you cut a magnet in half it will still have ____ poles
lightning
a really big example of a huge discharge of static electricity
electricity
flow of electrons
static electricity
electricity that is not moving (at rest), build up of electrons on an object that are then discharged
repel
when you bring like (the same) charges of an object together this happens (negative and negative, positive and positive, or in a magnet N N or S S poles)
attract
what happens when you bring unlike (opposite) charges together (negative and positive, or in a magnet North and South)
metals
these materials are usually very good conductors of heat and electricity
iron
this is the most common metal that magnets are attracted to (also Nickel and Cobalt)
cold
heat always flows from hot to ______
32
degrees Fahrenheit that water freezes
100
degrees Celsius that water boils
0
degrees Celsius that water freezes
212
degrees Fahrenheit that water boils
expand
what "most" materials in nature do when heated (means molecules get farther apart)
contract
what "most" materials in nature do when cooled (means molecules get closer together)
electron
this is that part of atom that can build-up in static electricity or flow in electrical energy