an intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. This includes seeing both sides of an issue, being open to new evidence that disconfirms one's ideas, reasoning dispassionately, demanding that claims be backed by evidence, deducing and inferring conclusions from available facts, and solving problems. a detailed plan to deliver a lesson to a particular cohort of students. The plan usually includes, but is not limited to, content standards, learning goals, instructional strategies, learning activities, student groupings, assessments, materials, resources, and technology. a theory that intelligence encompasses a range of functions and abilities (Gardner 1983). By recognizing that intelligence can manifest through abilities or agilities other than those of a cognitive nature, teacher candidates can adapt their teaching styles and learning activities to better engage and motivate learners (i.e., verbal-linguistic, mathematical-logical, musical, visual-spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, and existential learners).