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four great masters of the Jin-Yuan Dynasties

Liu he-Jian (Liu Wan -Su); Zhang Zi-He; Li Dong-Yuan; Zhu Dan-Xi

Liu He-Jian

founded the cool and cold school - focused on the principle of heat; all accumulation of qi and xue transforms to heat and fire

Zhang Zi-He

founded the Draining and Precipitating School - focused on freeing obstructions with purging/freeing methods using herbs

Li Dong-Yuan

founded the Earth Supplementing School - disease caused by abnormal spleen/stomach function; opposed to purging; quote: money making vs good doctor

Zhu Dan-Xi

"The Squire of the Scarlet Stream"; master of the miscellaneous diseases; founded the Yin-enriching school; focused on yin deficiency and over active yang; ministerial fire and sovereign fire relationships, kidney/pre-heaven qi

governmental/civil concepts of the Yuan Dynasty (3)

ruled by Mongols (Khans); cultural differences with lighter government; left an impoverished China behind

medical text from the Yuan Dynasty

Dan Xi Xin Fa - Dan Xi's Heart Approach - classification of internal medicine diseases

dynasty following the Yuan Dynasty

Ming - peasant emperor

governmental/civil concepts of Ming Dynasty (6)

capital moved to Beijing, improved peasant life, agriculture over trade, military development, built the current Great Wall, eunuchs rise to influence and power

Medical text of the Ming Dynasty

Ben Cao Gang Mu - Herbal Foundation Compendium - most comprehensive herbal text ever written: 52 volumes, 2000 medicinals, 11,000 formulas

Vesalius (In the west)

finally overcame Galen's errors in anatomy and focused on scientific detachment

Ambrose Pare

continued evidence based practice and fostered medical ethics in surgery

William Harvey

discovered the circulation of blood

dynasty following the Ming Dynasty

Qing - ruled by the Manchu

governmental/civil concepts of the Qing Dynasty (7)

peace and prosperity, military attached to the emperor, public works, light taxes, international trade, revival of arts and learning, western influences on China

medical contributions during the Qing Dynasty (3)

books published to refine medical knowledge, 1st medical journal; emphasis on warm diseases - Wen Bing Xue Shuo (Warm Disease Theory)

impact of western influence on Traditional medicine in China

challenged chinese medicine

three response to influence of western medicine

abandon old for the new, stay with old only, integrate medicines

Nationalist government (ROC) impact on medicine

tried to abolish chinese medicine in favor of Western approach; traditional doctors organized and kept the right to practice

Maoist government (PRC) impact on medicine (4)

opposed nationalists; encouraged traditional medicine as inexpensive way to treat many people; encouraged independence from the West; integrative medicine approach - Zhon Yi Jie He

four schools established by PRC

Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu - integrated medicine focus

Chinese name for integrated Chinese and Western medicine - modern TCM

Zhong Yi Jie He

Government/civil concepts during Three Kingdoms Era

constant warfare

Emperor who unified China at end of 3 Kingdoms to form Jin dynasty

Ssu-Ma Yen

Key Scientific discoveries of the Jin Dynasty (2)

gunpowder, helicopter rotor

medical texts of the Jin Dynasty

Mai Jing - the pulse classic; oldest surviving text on pulse diagnosis; correlates pulses with disease

Era following Jin Dynasty

South and North Kingdoms

Government/Civil concepts during the South and North Kingdoms

Huns ruled, but never completely

Scientific discoveries of the South and North Kingdoms period


Medical Contributions during the South and North Kingdoms Era

established medical education

dynasty following the South and North period

Sui Dynasty

governmental/civil concepts of the Sui dynasty (3)

internal administration improved, public works completed; military campaigns against Korea led to invasion by the Turks - Khan

medical text of the Sui Dynasty

Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun - The Origin and Indicators of Disease, written by Chao Yuan-Fang - internal medicine diseases

Governmental/Civil concepts of the Tang Dynasty (6)

canal system with granaries; first complete code of laws; issued land grants and taxed individuals not by land; period of war with a lot of power struggles with difficult life for peasants; empire expanded; ends with 1st successful peasant uprising

medical contributions of Tang Dynasty (2)

Established medical education center - Tai Yi Shu; standardized medical education

Medical texts of Tang Dynasty (2)

Tang Ben Cao - 1st government sponsored herbal text; Qian Jin Yao Fang Thousand Golden Ducat Prescriptions by Sun Si Miao

Importance of the Qian Jin Yao Fang

herb processing, gynecology, pediatrics, leg qi, wind diseases, cold damage

Characteristics of the Tai Yi Shu

departmentalized medical education; standardized court medicine

characteristics of folk medicine

varied educational level of practitioners, family and local styles - variety of approaches, low cost, less knowledge of western medicine

characteristics of court medicine

more organized with Imperial influence, standardization of medical texts and schools

dynasty that replaces Tang

Song Dynasty

governmental/civil concepts of Song Dynasty (4)

promoted rational thinking and science - "naturalistic rationalism;" moved away from the supernatural; return to Daoism and neo-confucianism; stability and economic development

Scientific developments of the Song Dynasty (3)

rockets and multi-staged rockets; printing, compass

Contributions to medicine in the Song Dynasty (6)

published standard editions of the classics; five movements and six qi theory (five phases and external pathogens); standardized medical exam for doctors; quality control for herbs; forensic medicine; modernization of medicine

Medical text of the Song Dynasty

Pei Wei Lun - written by Li Dong-Yuan, gastrointestinal diseases

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