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PCOM: Phil Foundations, week 8 & 9 - Quiz Three comprehensive Set: Three Kingdoms to Song; Four Great Masters; Yuan Dynasty to Modern China

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four great masters of the Jin-Yuan Dynasties
Liu he-Jian (Liu Wan -Su); Zhang Zi-He; Li Dong-Yuan; Zhu Dan-Xi
Liu He-Jian
founded the cool and cold school - focused on the principle of heat; all accumulation of qi and xue transforms to heat and fire
Zhang Zi-He
founded the Draining and Precipitating School - focused on freeing obstructions with purging/freeing methods using herbs
Li Dong-Yuan
founded the Earth Supplementing School - disease caused by abnormal spleen/stomach function; opposed to purging; quote: money making vs good doctor
Zhu Dan-Xi
"The Squire of the Scarlet Stream"; master of the miscellaneous diseases; founded the Yin-enriching school; focused on yin deficiency and over active yang; ministerial fire and sovereign fire relationships, kidney/pre-heaven qi
governmental/civil concepts of the Yuan Dynasty (3)
ruled by Mongols (Khans); cultural differences with lighter government; left an impoverished China behind
medical text from the Yuan Dynasty
Dan Xi Xin Fa - Dan Xi's Heart Approach - classification of internal medicine diseases
dynasty following the Yuan Dynasty
Ming - peasant emperor
governmental/civil concepts of Ming Dynasty (6)
capital moved to Beijing, improved peasant life, agriculture over trade, military development, built the current Great Wall, eunuchs rise to influence and power
Medical text of the Ming Dynasty
Ben Cao Gang Mu - Herbal Foundation Compendium - most comprehensive herbal text ever written: 52 volumes, 2000 medicinals, 11,000 formulas
Vesalius (In the west)
finally overcame Galen's errors in anatomy and focused on scientific detachment
Ambrose Pare
continued evidence based practice and fostered medical ethics in surgery
William Harvey
discovered the circulation of blood
dynasty following the Ming Dynasty
Qing - ruled by the Manchu
governmental/civil concepts of the Qing Dynasty (7)
peace and prosperity, military attached to the emperor, public works, light taxes, international trade, revival of arts and learning, western influences on China
medical contributions during the Qing Dynasty (3)
books published to refine medical knowledge, 1st medical journal; emphasis on warm diseases - Wen Bing Xue Shuo (Warm Disease Theory)
impact of western influence on Traditional medicine in China
challenged chinese medicine
three response to influence of western medicine
abandon old for the new, stay with old only, integrate medicines
Nationalist government (ROC) impact on medicine
tried to abolish chinese medicine in favor of Western approach; traditional doctors organized and kept the right to practice
Maoist government (PRC) impact on medicine (4)
opposed nationalists; encouraged traditional medicine as inexpensive way to treat many people; encouraged independence from the West; integrative medicine approach - Zhon Yi Jie He
four schools established by PRC
Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chengdu - integrated medicine focus
Chinese name for integrated Chinese and Western medicine - modern TCM
Zhong Yi Jie He
Government/civil concepts during Three Kingdoms Era
constant warfare
Emperor who unified China at end of 3 Kingdoms to form Jin dynasty
Ssu-Ma Yen
Key Scientific discoveries of the Jin Dynasty (2)
gunpowder, helicopter rotor
medical texts of the Jin Dynasty
Mai Jing - the pulse classic; oldest surviving text on pulse diagnosis; correlates pulses with disease
Era following Jin Dynasty
South and North Kingdoms
Government/Civil concepts during the South and North Kingdoms
Huns ruled, but never completely
Scientific discoveries of the South and North Kingdoms period
matches
Medical Contributions during the South and North Kingdoms Era
established medical education
dynasty following the South and North period
Sui Dynasty
governmental/civil concepts of the Sui dynasty (3)
internal administration improved, public works completed; military campaigns against Korea led to invasion by the Turks - Khan
medical text of the Sui Dynasty
Zhu Bing Yuan Hou Lun - The Origin and Indicators of Disease, written by Chao Yuan-Fang - internal medicine diseases
Governmental/Civil concepts of the Tang Dynasty (6)
canal system with granaries; first complete code of laws; issued land grants and taxed individuals not by land; period of war with a lot of power struggles with difficult life for peasants; empire expanded; ends with 1st successful peasant uprising
medical contributions of Tang Dynasty (2)
Established medical education center - Tai Yi Shu; standardized medical education
Medical texts of Tang Dynasty (2)
Tang Ben Cao - 1st government sponsored herbal text; Qian Jin Yao Fang Thousand Golden Ducat Prescriptions by Sun Si Miao
Importance of the Qian Jin Yao Fang
herb processing, gynecology, pediatrics, leg qi, wind diseases, cold damage
Characteristics of the Tai Yi Shu
departmentalized medical education; standardized court medicine
characteristics of folk medicine
varied educational level of practitioners, family and local styles - variety of approaches, low cost, less knowledge of western medicine
characteristics of court medicine
more organized with Imperial influence, standardization of medical texts and schools
dynasty that replaces Tang
Song Dynasty
governmental/civil concepts of Song Dynasty (4)
promoted rational thinking and science - "naturalistic rationalism;" moved away from the supernatural; return to Daoism and neo-confucianism; stability and economic development
Scientific developments of the Song Dynasty (3)
rockets and multi-staged rockets; printing, compass
Contributions to medicine in the Song Dynasty (6)
published standard editions of the classics; five movements and six qi theory (five phases and external pathogens); standardized medical exam for doctors; quality control for herbs; forensic medicine; modernization of medicine
Medical text of the Song Dynasty
Pei Wei Lun - written by Li Dong-Yuan, gastrointestinal diseases