Social Science - Chapter 2, 3, and 10
Terms in this set (87)
How did Charlemagne's relationship with the church benefit both parties?
This benefited society, and his empire, but for very little time. -Charlemagne helped Leo 111 because he needed support of someone with an army. -In return, the pope crowned him Holy Roman Emperor in 800 CE.
Why was there a need for order after the death of Charlemagne in 814?
Weak rulers who followed him couldn't defend the empire against the new waves of invasion. Also, there were more barbarians and lots of fighting.
Where did monarchs get their power?
They got their power from maintaining control of their kingdoms and few had enough wealth to keep their own armies.
-had to rely on vassals
-got power from god
Describe the three basic stages for a boy to become a knight.
1- boy started as a page, or servant
2- at age 7, he left home and went to live at the castle of a lord, who was often a relative.
3- they had to learn how to ride a horse and received religious instruction from the local priest or friar.
What responsibilities did knights have in the feudal system?
They lived by a strong code of behavior called chivalry. They were expected to be loyal to their church and lord, to be just and fair, and to protect the helpless.
What were the responsibilities of peasants in the feudal system?
-worked the land
-couldn't leave manor, own property , or marry without consent of The Lord.
-their labor freed lords and knights to spend time preparing for war or fighting.
-raised crops and tended livestock
-required to grind their grain at the lords mill.
Why is William the Conquerer considered an important monarch?
William defeated Harold at the Battle of Hastings and established a line of Norman kings in England.
What responsibilities did lords have in the feudal system?
The lords managed and defended his land and the people who worked in it.
What was the role of the noblewomen in the feudal system?
-sat as judges in manor courts
-sent their knights to serve in times of war
-also, cooks, servants, craftspeople, and grooms
What were some of the difficulties or challenges of being a peasant or serf?
-might owe The Lord numerous taxes
-"tied" to the land they worked
-couldn't leave lord's land without permission, and they had to farm his fields in exchange for a small plot of their own.
-first king of the Franks (496 AD)
-became Catholic winning support of the kingdom
-his wife is Catholic
-Mayor of the palace - most powerful noble
-wanted to unite all Frankish nobles which became the beginning of feudalism
-Battle of Tours in 732 AD kept Islam from spreading to Europe.
Pepin the Short
-Son of Charles Martel
-King of Franks
-Defeated the Lombards and gave the Pope Papal States.
Kings and queens
Members of the nobility, the highest ranking class in the medieval society.
The medieval knight's code of ideal behavior, including bravery, loyalty, and respect for noble women.
Peasants farmed the land and made the most of the necessary articles of life. Also, they were at the bottom of the social hierarchy.
The religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus.
The leader of the Franks from 768 to 814 C.E., who unified most of the Christian lands of Europe into a single empire.
The economic and political system of medieval Europe in which people exchanged loyalty for a lord's protection.
Land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service.
A peasant who could not leave the lord's land on which he or she was born.
Which Roman Emperor issued a decree allowing Chrisitans to practice their religion freely?
How had Christians been treated by Romans before that time?
They would be persecuted.
Name the roles the Roman Catholic Church played in the society after the fall of Rome.
-provided leadership, and sometimes organized the distribution of food.
-monasteries provided hospitality to refugees and travelers
-rewrote and preserved texts
Supreme Head of the Roman Catholic Church
People who assisted and counseled the pope and were known as high ranking clergyman. These cardinals were appointed by the Pope.
They oversaw large or important areas called archdioceses
They governed areas called dioceses from great cathedrals
According to the teaching of the Catholic Church, what was the purpose of sacraments?
The sacraments marked the most important occasions in a persons life
Why did some people undertake pilgrimages?
This was to show devotion to God, as an act of penance for their sins, or in hopes of being cured of an illness.
What were some popular destinations of pilgrims?
Jerusalem, Rome, holy sites, and Canterbury Cathedral in England.
What were some of the challenges pilgrims faced on their journeys?
Robbers, maybe starvation, or wild animals.
What was the goal of the Crusades?
To seek wealth, and some seek adventure. Others went in belief that doing so would guarantee salvation.
In what ways did the art of Medieval Europe reflect the influence of the Roman Catholic Church?
Art helped tell the story of Jesus's life in a way that everyone could understand, since most people couldn't read or write.
Nave and Transept
The churches were built with a long section (nave), and shorter side sections (transept)
-Unique features of Gothic cathedrals
-Decorative stone sculptures projecting from rain gutters of edges of a Cathedral roof.
-some people thought that gargoyles were there to remind them that devils and evil spirits would catch them if they did not obey the teachings of the church.
-Taught people stories from the bible
-Made from pieces of colorful glass.
These are outside and are stone arches that spread the massive weight of soaring roof and walls more evenly.
How old was Henry when he became the king of Germany?
6 years old
Why was Henry excommunicated by the Pope?
Henry refused to obey the pope's orders.
Why did Henry's son overthrow him?
They felt that his support of Clement was putting the empire at risk.
When was Gregory named Pope?
How did he feel about priests being married?
He didn't believe in the Catholic religion.
What ruler forced Gregory out of Rome?
During the Middle Ages, what was the center of life? This helped explain world events such as disease, famine, and storms.
Roman Catholic Church
What are sacred rights that are an important part in gaining salvation?
The people, such as priests and bishops, who perform sacred functions of a church.
What are 3 characteristics of a Gothic Cathedral?
What are two ways people showed devotion to the Church during the Middle Ages?
Where did most schooling take place?
Cathedrals and monasteries
What marks important days of the year with celebrations, festivals, and fairs?
Monks and nuns joined what which had their own rules and ways of providing service to people?
How did the Church acquire so much economic power?
The church collected tax (tithe) and gained land, sometimes in forms of gifts.
What is the main idea of "The Canterbury Tales"?
These are used to entertain.
What are the two advances in education during the Middle Ages?
-Scholars developed a new form of writing that helped make reading a lot easier. Scholars began to use upper case and now lowercase letters too.
-Idea that universities are starting to be created (only to nobles, not public)
Who was Thomas Aquinas?
An Italian scholar of philosophy and theology, who tried to bridge the gap between reason and faith.
How did he bring together ancient philosophy and Christian theology?
He brought this together by the concept of natural law. He also let everyone know that people should be faithful, but also use a scientific mind.
The word holiday comes from what?
What types of things did Christian holidays celebrate?
-Celebrating the life of Jesus
-Other important religious ideas
What were some ways people celebrated religious holidays?
They would attend Church, feast, play games, and watch entertainment.
Where did Benedictive Monks live?
What promises or sacrifices did they make to join the order?
Poverty (to own no property), chastity (never to marry), and obedience (to obey their leaders).
How did they spend their time?
They spent their lives in prayer, study and work.
Where did Franciscan Friars live?
They lived in complete poverty.
What promises or sacrifices did they make to join the order?
They had to serve the poor and beg for food.
How did they spend their time?
They traveled among ordinary people to preach and care for the poor and sick.
A series of religious wars launched by European Christians to reclaim Jerusalem and other holy sites from Muslims.
The Supreme Ruler of a Muslim State.
The area between Egypt and Syria that was the ancient homeland of Jews and the place where Jesus Christ had lived (Palestine).
A judicial body established by the Roman Catholic Church to combat forms of religious error.
Hostility and discrimination against Jews.
The forced separation of one group from the rest of a community.
Used formerly as a title for the hereditary monarch of Iran.
A series of campaigns by Christian states to recapture territory from the Muslims. (In Spain)
Why is Jerusalem holy to Christians?
This was the city where Jesus was crucified and arose from the dead.
Why is Jerusalem holy to Muslims?
This was where Muhammad ascended to heaven during his night journey.
Why is Jerusalem holy to Jews?
It was the spiritual capital of the Jews, where their great Temple had once stood.
What were some causes of the Crusades?
-11th Century Seljuk Turks from Central Asia wanted to expand their empire.
-They took Syria, Palestine, and much of the Asia Minor (part of the Byzantine Empire)
-This alarmed the Christian world
-Christians worried about the Holy Land, especially Jerusalem.
How long was Jerusalem under Muslim rule until?
Depending on the rulers, who lived together peacefully?
Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
What were some things the Seljuk Turks did to Jerusalem?
They made it unsafe - killing Christian pilgrims.
Positive Impacts of the Crusades on Christians:
-European merchants earned enormous profits by trading the goods Crusaders brought home.
-Increased in trade
Negative Impacts of the Crusades on Christians:
-The Crusaders need of supplies increased the use of money in Europe.
-The power of monarchs weakened feudalism.
Positive Impacts of the Crusades on Muslims:
-Gained exposure to some new weapons and military ideas during this time.
-Muslim merchants earned riches from trade in Europe. (Syria & Egypt) -fund building projects
-Brought political changes, as Muslims united to their common foe.
Negative Impacts of the Crusades on Muslims:
-Unknown number lost their lives
-Crusaders destroyed Muslim property in Jerusalem and other communities.
Negative Impacts of the Crusades on Jews:
-Missed their homeland
-Didn't have a homeland
-Forced to live in smaller communities
-Suffered a series of violent persecutions
-Some Crusaders murdered whole communities of Jews and tortured them to make them accept Christianity.
-The Jews place in European society had deteriorated by the end of the Crusades.
-Jews couldn't hold public office
-In 1290, England expelled all Jews.