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what was the major problem with the agricultural system in the 1700s?

It had not changed since ancient Greece

the openfield system. How was it set up?

-land divided into long, narrow strips
-then farmed jointly by the community

Crop Rotation:

The secret was in alternating grain crops with nitrogenstoring crops, such as peas and beans, root crops, and grasses.
This meant more fodder for animals, which meant more meat for the people and more manure for fertilizer.
These improvements necessitated ending the openfield system by "enclosing" the fields.

Enclosure movement:

Enclosure of the open fields also meant the disappearance of common land which hurt the small landholders and village poor.
Many peasants and some noble landowners opposed these changes.
The enclosure process was slow, and enclosed and open fields existed side by side for a long time.
Only in the Low Countries and England was enclosure widespread.

Why did the Low Countries lead the agricultural revolution?

This Dutch lead was due largely to the need to feed a growing population.
The growth of the urban population provided good markets for the produce.


A Dutch engineer who helped England drain its marshes to create more arable land


Brought Dutch farming ideas to England, including crop rotation and the use of fodder crops


Advocated the use of horses for plowing and drilling equipment for sowing seeds

What was "The Cost of enclosure"?

It was the independent peasant farmers who could not compete, and thus began to disappear.
The tenant farmers, who rented land from the big landlords, benefited from enclosure.
By 1815 a tiny minority of English and Scottish landlords held most of the land--which they rented to tenants, who hired laborers.
The enclosure movement marked the rise of marketoriented estate agriculture and the emergence of a landless rural proletariat.

What were the original limitations of population growth?

the traditional checks on growth were famine, disease, and war.

What were the causes of the Population Explosion?

-partly because the plague was gone
(the black rat was eliminated by the brown rat)
(stricter quarantine measures against plague)
-advances in medicine (such as inoculation against smallpox)
-improvements in sanitation promoted better public health
-increase in food supply=fewer famines

What lead to peasants undertaking manufacturing at home?

-Rural poverty and population growth led to peasants undertaking manufacturing at home
--->eventually challenged the monopoly of the urban craft industry

the puttingout system:

-based on rural workers producing cloth in their homes for merchant capitalists who supplied the raw materials and paid for the finished goods

effects of puttingout system:

reduced rural unemplyment and provided cheap goods
-England led the way in the conversion from urban to rural textile production

the textile industry:

Huge industry in England. And example of the puttingout system.
-the women would spin and the men would weave.
-took place in their cottage

Problems with the textile industry:

-not enough spinner to make yarn for the weavers
-strained relations often existed between workers and capitalist emplyers
-the capitalist found it difficult to control the worker

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