Principles of Physical Training Lec. 5 - 9

Principles of Physical Training Lec. 5 - 9
What is SORRIM?
S- specificity
O- overloed
R- rest
R- reversibility
I- individualisation
M- maintenance
Define Core Strength.
The ability to control the position of the trunk over the pelvis and leg to allow optimum production in intergrated athletic activities.
What are local Stabilizers?
They are deep muscles that attatch to the vertebra. They limit shear, rotation and compressive forces. They are:
Transverse Abdominus
Erector Spinse
Pelvic Floor Muscles
Psoas Major
Quadratus Lumborum
What are Global Stabilizers?
They provide power and Speed.
Latissimus Dorsi
Rectus Abdominus
Int. and Ext. Obliques
Psoas Major
What's so good about Swiss Balls for Core Strength?
1. Increase Kinesthetic Awareness and protects body position
2.Increases Balance
3.Dynamic Flexibility (forces greater ROM)
4.Stabilizer/Neutralizer Strength (the unstableness forces stabilizers to work)
Abdominal Hollowing
Spine is in neutral Pelvis position
Learn to activate inner core muscles while stabilizing spine
Focus on Technique and Kinesthetic Awareness
Separation of breathing and activation.
What is Kinaesthetic Awareness?
being aware of your bodys position in space. Sensing/feeling and finding things for yourself.
Cardiovascular Disease
CAD (coronary artery disease) or Myocardial Infarction.
Leading cause of death in NZ - over 40%
Risk factors for CAD
High Blood Pressure
High Cholestorol
Poor Diet
Physical Inactivity
Age/Family History/Ethnic Background
What is Angina?
a heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart.
and is caused by narrower coronary arteries due to plaque buildup.
What are two types of Cholestorol?
HDL and LDL cholestorol.
HDL = good
LDL = bad
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
a disorder in which the heart muscle is so strong that it does not relax enough to fill with the heart with blood and so has reduced pumping ability.
Is it safe for pregnant women to exercise?
It is percieved to be detrimental
and not recommended as often as
it should be BUT, it depends on the woman
and if they choose to exercise a programme
must be designed to suit her conditions.
Why does a pregnant womens o2 intake change?
with extra pressure from the uterus on the diaphragm, it is harder for it to contract, using more energy to bring in the same amount of air.
How do you modify intensity of exercise for Pregnant women?
*Stop exercise when fatigued, not to exhaustion.
*Non weight bearing exercises like cycling or swimming will decrease risk of injury.
*Change in shape should be considered throughout pregnancy.
*Women get hotter quicker so monitor environment.
Benefits of training for the Elderly
-helps prevent falls
-improves mobility
-conteract muscle weakness and frailty
-improve performance in activities of daily living
-extend functional independence
Elderly and Training Guidelines
*need to be monitored for several weeks
*start with minimal weight
*teach proper techniques
*make sure movements are done in a painfree ROM
*reduce activity when there is pain or inflammation eg. arthritis.
What is Strength?
the ability to apply force
What is Speed?
the ability to move quickly
What is Power?
the ability to use force at speed
F(orce) x V(elocity) = Power
Common Out-of-Gym Training Methods
Ballistic Training =Plyometrics, Jump Training, Med Ball throwing

Speed Training
What is Plyometrics?
A type of training designed to develop an athletes explosiveness by using jumping and hopping and other exercises that cause lengthening of a muscle followed by a shortening contraction.
How does Plyometrics work?
When muscle prestretching occurs (eccentric contraction) the concentric contraction that floows is more powerful. This is due to:
1.The storage and untilisation of elastic energy
2.Activation of stretch reflex.
Training Principles for Plyometrics
1. Specificity
should be specific to athletes goals
2.Progressive Overload
ensure a good strength base before beginning program and build up slowly
2-3x a week pre season/1-2x a week in-season
max. level of intensity, less than 100% will be of minimal value
QUALITY over quantity. Beg. 80-100
Int. 100-120 Adv. 120-140 contacts
between sets = ratio of 1:5 to 1:10
What is SSC?
the stretch shortening cycle. This is done by the stretching of an active muscle immediately followed by concentric contraction.
Weight Training vs. Plyometrics
Use weight training to build a BIGGER ENGINE (strength) and the plyometrics to TUNE(neural) the engine.
What is Flexibility?
The max. ROM or movement of a joint/group of joints.
ROM is improved by reducing muscle tension using a CONTROLLED force to lengthen connective tissue.
Why is it important to Stretch?
-Prevemt Injuries
-Improve Efficiencies
-Improve Co-ordination
-Improve relaxation
-Reduce possibility of DOMS
-Counteract the restricting effects of hypertrophy training.
Passive vs. Active Stretching
Passive =gradual passive stretching of a muscle to a point of a hold. 10-30sec
Best suited to:
starting a programme
recovering from an injury
cool down

Active=ROM that athletes can produce unaided. Is more highly correlated with actual performance than Statics.
Good for:
stretching before exercise
stretching muscles that cross major joints.
What does PNF stand for?
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.
Involves using an isometric contraction against the stretch in order to increase passive ROM.

Artogenic Inhibition
What produces the greatest DOMS? and recovery methods.
Eccentric, exhaustive exercise.
Gentle Stretching
Light Activity
Complete Rest
What is Asthma?
Characterized by reversible obstruction
to airflow and increased bronchial
responsiveness to allergic and environmental
stimuli. Asthma sufferes SHOULD participate in exercise.
What can trigger Asthma?
Colds and Flu
Exercise(which can be managed)
Inhaled allergens
Cigarette Smoke
Changes in temp. or weather
Certain Drugs
Chemicals and Strong smells.
Why does breathing become hard for Asthmatics?
When an asthmatic has been triggered, their airways begin to inflame and feels similar to taking deep breaths of very cold air in winter.
The difference between the 2 Diabetes Types.
Type I = is passed down, pancreas cells malfunction and insulin production is reduced.

Type II = Brought on by poor lifestyle habits, desensitization of insulin, related to body fat.
Signs and Symptoms of Hypoglycaemia
=abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet.

Blurred Vision
Thumping Heart
Trembling hands and knees
Looks pale and has sweaty skin
What do you do if someone has Hypoglycaemia?
STOP exercise.
Get SUGAR into them
Stay, OBSERVE, and reassure.
If you dont like progression call ambulance.
What is a STROKE?
There are 2 Types:
*Ischemic (clot) lack of bloodflow due to a blockage
*Haemarrohage (bleed) weakened blood vessel ruptures.

Rates as the 3rd greatest cause of deaths in NZ.
Potential Results from STROKE.
Weakness (generally down one side)
Speech and Swallowing difficulties
Impaired balance and co-ordination
Impaired sensation
Visual Disturbances
-Emotional and Behavioural challenges.
Useful exercises for Stroke victims
Cardiovascular Fitness - treadmill training
Resistance Training
Balance Training
3-4x a week, build up intensity slowly.
What is Multiple Sclerosis?
A chronic disease of the central nervous system marked by damage to the myelin sheath. Plaques occur in the brain and spinal cord causing tremor, weakness, incoordination, paresthesia, and disturbances in vision and speech
What are Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI)?
Damage to the Spinal Cord, main impairment is muscular paralysis, decreased stabilisation and tonal changes.
Damage to the cervical region.
-imairment of arms, legs, trunk,legs and pelvic organs
Damage to the thoracic region.
-impairment to trunk, legs and/or pelvic organs

Lumbar and Sacral injuries = impairment to legs, pelvic organs or both.
Exercise options for Paraplegia
If trunk control/balance is impaired: strapping and belts should be used during exercise

If hand grip/foot placement is impaired: should be secured to ergometer or machine with elastic, gloves, clips etc.

Arm Cranking/cycling
Free wheeling
Upper Body Weights
Treadmill (if able)