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Chapter 6 and Chapter 7

Terms in this set (33)

Work groups are organized structures which shape group member behaviors and influence group performance. They are not random crowds. Structure defines the norms, conformity, status systems, group size, group cohesiveness, etc. Let's look at six aspects of group structure.
Roles: Behavior patterns expected of someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
Norms: Standards or expectations that are accepted and shared by a group's members.
Conformity: Because individuals want to be accepted by groups to which they belong, they're susceptible to pressures to conform. Conformity pressures influence an individual's judgments and attitudes.
Groupthink: A phenomenon in which a group exerts extensive pressure on an individual to align his or her opinions with others' opinions.
Status Systems: Status systems are systems when individual members are given different prestige grading or positions within the group. Status: A prestige grading, position, or rank within a group.
Group size: Jeff Bezos has a "two-pizza" philosophy. A team should be small enough that it can be fed with two pizzas.
Small groups: are faster at completing tasks than larger ones (doing something more productive).
Large groups: are better for getting diverse input and finding facts.
Group cohesiveness: The degree to which group members are attracted to one another and share a group's goals. A key moderating variable is the degree to which the group's attitude aligns with the group goals/organizational goals. (KNOW CHART!!)
Positive forces: good communication, synergy effect
Negative forces: Dysfunctional conflict, social loafing
Two important group processes:
1) Group decision-making
2) Conflict management
Question: What are the advantages of group decision-making?
Multiple perspectives and idea, brainstorming, multiple skills, group analysis, etc.
What are the disadvantages of group decision-making?
Expensive, time consuming, group think, dominance of minorities who are loud, extroverted, and bossy.
Perceived incompatible differences that result in interference or opposition.
Traditional view of conflict:
The view that all conflict is bad and must be avoided.
Human relations view of conflict:
The view that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group. It need not be negative and has potential to be a positive force in contributing to a group's performance.
Interactionist view of conflict:
The view that not only can conflict be a positive force in a group, but some conflict is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively. The interactionist view does not propose that all conflicts are good and constructive.
Some conflicts are constructive and support the goals of the work group and improve its performance. These are functional conflicts. Other conflicts are destructive and prevent a group from achieving its goals. These are dysfunctional conflicts.
When is conflict functional/dysfunctional?
The type of conflict influences its outcome.
When conflicts focus on interpersonal relationships and there is hostility among group members, it is almost always dysfunctional. Such conflicts are called relationship conflicts.
When conflicts are related to the content and goals of the work (task conflicts) they can be functional if they are at a moderate or low level.
When there is conflict about how the work gets done (process conflict), they can be functional if they are kept at a minimal level.
When group conflict levels are too high, managers can select from five conflict management options:
1) Avoiding
2) Accommodating
3) Forcing/competing
4) Compromising
5) Collaborating