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Language of Medicine Chapter 21 -Keywords

Chabner's Language of Medicine, 9th edition. Keywords for Chapter 21-pharmacology.
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addiction
Physical and psychological dependence on and craving for a drug
additive action
Drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each
aerosol
particles of drug suspended in air
anaphylaxis
exaggerated hypersensitivity reation to a previously encountered drug or foreign protein
antagonistic action
combination of two drugs gives less than a additive effect (action)
antidote
agent given to counteract an unwanted effect of a drug
brand name
commercial name for a drug: trademark or trade name
chemical name
chemical formula for a drug
contraindications
factors that prevent the use of a drug or treatment
controlled substances
drugs that produce tolerance and dependence and have potential for abuse or addiction
dependence
prolonged use of a drug that may lead to physiologic need for its actions in the body
dose
amount of drug administered, usually measured in milligrams
Food and Drug administration (FDA)
U.S. government agency having the legal responsibility for enforcing proper drug manafacture and clinical use
generic name
legal noncommercial name for a drug
iatrogenic
condition caused by treatment (drugs or procedures) given by physicicans or medical personnel
idiosyncratic reaction
unexpected effect produced in a particularly sensitive patient but not seen in most people
inhalation
adminstration of drugs in gaseous or vapor form through the nose or mouth
medicinal chemistry
study of new drug synthesis; relationship between chemical structure and biological effects
molecular pharmacology
study of interaction of drugs and their target molecules such as enzymes, or cell surface receptors
oral administration
drugs are given by mouth
parenteral administration
drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles, or veins (any route other than throughthe digestive tract). Examples are subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intrathecal, and intracavitary injections
pharmacist
specialist in preparing and dispensing drugs
pharmacy
location for preparing and dispensing drugs; also the study of preparing and dispensing drugs
pharmacodynamics
study of the effects and strength of a drug within the body
pharmacokinetics
study of drug concentration in tissues and body fluids over a period of time
pharmacologist
specialist in the study of the properties, uses, and actions of drugs
pharmacology
study of the preparation, properties, uses, and actions of drugs
Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR)
reference book that lists drug products
receptor
target substance with which a drug interacts in the body
rectal administration
drugs are inserted through the anus into the rectum
resistance
lack of beneficial response: seen when drugs are unable to control the disease process
response
desired and benifical effect of a drug
schedule
exact timing and frequency of drug administration
side effect
adverse reaction, usually minor, that routinely results from the use of a drug
sublingual administration
drugs are given by placement under the tongue
synergism
combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug alone. Also known as potentiation.
syringe
instrument (tube) for introducing or withdrawing fluids from the body
tolerance
larger and larger drug doses must be given to achieve the desired effect. the patient becomes resistant to the action of a drug as treatment progresses
topical application
drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; ointments, creams, and lotions are applied topically
toxicity
harmful effects of a drug
toxicology
study of harmful chemicals and the effects on the body
transport
movement of a drug across a cell membrane into body cells
United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
authoritative list of drugs, formulas, and preparations that sets a standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing
vitamin
substance found in foods and essential in small quantities for growth and good health
ACE inhibitor
lowers blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the conversation of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (a powerful vasconstrictor)
amphetamine
central nervous system stimulant used to prevent narcolepsy (seizures of sleep), to suppress appetite and to calm hyperkinetic children.
analgesic
relieves pain
androgen
male hormone
anesthetic
Reduces or eliminates sensation; general and local.
angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs)
lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels
antacid
neutralizes acid in the stomach
antiandrogen
slows the uptake of androgens or interferes with their effect in tissues
antiarrhythmic
treats abnormal heart rhythms
antibiotic
Chemical substance, produced by a plant or microorganism, that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body. Examples are antifungals, cephalosporins, erythromycin, tetracycline, antituberculars, penicillins, quinolones, and sulfonamides.
anticoagulant
prevents blood clotting
anticonvulsant
prevents convulsions (abnormal brain activity)
antidepressant
relieves symptoms of depression
antidiabetic
drug given to prevent or treat diabetes mellitus
antidiarrheal
prevents diarrhea
antiemetic
Prevents nausea and vomiting
antihistamine
blocks the effects of histamine and helps prevent symptoms of allergy
antinauseant
relieves nausea and vomiting; antiemetic
antiplatelet
reduces the tendency of platelets to stick together and form a clot
antiulcer
inhibits the secretion of acid by cells lining the stomach
antiviral
acts against viruses such as herpesviruses and HIV
aromatase inhibitor
reduces estrogen in the blood by blocking the enzyme aromatase
bactericidal
kills bacteria
bacteriostatic
inhibits bacterial growth
beta-blocker
blocks the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cells, the muscle lining of blood vessels, and bronchial tubes; antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive
bisphosphonate
prevents bone loss in osteoporosis and osteopenia
caffeine
central nervous system stimulant that is used in drugs to relieve certain types of headache by constricting cerebral blood vessels.
calcium channel blocker
blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscle and muscle lining of blood vessels; used as an antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive; also called calcium antagonist
cardiac glycoside
increases the force of contraction of the heart
cardiovascular drugs
Drugs that act on the heart and blood vessels. This category of drug includes ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, cholesterol-lowering drugs or statins and diuretics
cathartic
relieves constipation
cholesterol-lowering drug
lowers cholesterol by preventing its production by the liver; statin
diuretic
increases the production of urine and thus reduces the volume of fluid in the body; antihypertensive
emetic
promotes vomiting
estrogen
female hormone that promotes development of secondary sex characteristics and supports reproductive tissues
gastrointestinal drug
Relieves symptoms of diseases in gastrointestinal tract. Ex: antacids, antiulcer drugs, antidiarrheals, cathartics, laxatives, purgatives, and antinauseants (antiemetics).
glucocorticoid
hormone from the adrenal cortex that raises blood sugar and reduces inflammation
hypnotic
produces sleep or a trance-like state
laxative
weak cathartic
narcotic
habit-forming drug (potent analgesic) that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensibility (also known as opioids); morphine and opium are examples.
progestin
female hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is also used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and for hormone replacement therapy
purgative
relieves constipation; strong cathartic
respiratory drug
Treats asthma, emphysema, and infections that affect breathing; bronchodilators are examples
sedative
a mildly hypnotic drug that relaxes without necessarily producing sleep. Benzodiazepines are examples.
stimulant
excites and promotes activity. caffeine and amphetamines are examples
thyroid hormone
stimulates cellular metabolism
tranquilizer
controls anxiety and severe disturbances of behavior; also called anxiolytics.
Intracavity instillation
A type of parenteral administration in which an injection is made into a body cavity such as the peritoneal or pleural cavity,
pleurodesis
A procedure in which drugs are introduced into the plerual cavity of people who have pleural effusions due to malignant disease. The drug causes the pleural surfaces to adhere.
Intradermal injection
A type of parenteral adminitstration in which a shallow injection is made into the upper layers of the skin.
Subcutaneous (hypodermic) injection (SC)
A type of parenteral administration in which a small hypodermic needle is introduced into the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, usually on the upper arm, thigh, or abdomen.
Intramuscular injection (IM)
A type of parenteral administration in which an injection of the muscle is given usually in the buttock or upper arm.
Intrathecal instillation
A type of parenteral drug administration in which instillation occurs in the space under the membranes (meninges) surrounding the spinal cord and brain. Also known as a Lumbar puncture.
Intravenous injection (IV)
A type of parenteral drug administration in which the injection is given directly into a vein.
Pumps
Battery-powered ___, may be used for continuous administration of drugs by the subcutaneous or intravenous route.
antiseptic
Against infection
antipruritics
Against itching
Transdermal patch
A type of topical application that is used to deliver drugs continuously through the skin; such as estrogen for hormone replacement therapy, pain medication, and nicotine for smoking cesation programs.
Idiosyncrasy
A unexpected effect that occurs in the patient after administration of a drug.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
Act on tissues to inhibit prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that sensitize peripheral pain receptors). Reduces fever, pain, and inflammation.
general anesthetic
An agent that reduces or eliminates sensation in all tissues of the body.
local anesthetic
An agent that reduces or eliminates sensation in a particular region.
warfarin (Coumadin)
An anticoagulant that blocks the formation of a number of clot-forming factors in blood. Reversed by Vitamin K.
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)
An anticoagulant that dissolves clots and is used to open vessels after myocardial infarction.
heparin
A natural anticoagulant purified from pig intestine or bovine(cow) lung.
tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
Antidepressants that increase the action of neurotransimtters by blocking their removal (reuptake) from the synapses (spaces between nerve cells). (1)
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
An antidepressant that increases the action of neurotransimtters by blocking their removal (reuptake) from the synapses (spaces between nerve cells). (2)
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
Antidepressants which increase the length of time neurotransmitters work by blocking monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that normally inactivates neurotransmitters.
Anti-Alzheimer drugs
Drugs used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer disease. They act by aiding brain neurotransmitters (acetylcholine) or sheilding brain cells from glutamate, a neurotransmitter that at high levels contributes to death of brain cells.
insulin
an antidiabetic used to treat type-1 diabetes
sulfonylureas
An oral antidiabetic drug that lowers the levels of glucose in the blood by stimulating the production of insulin. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
biguanides
Oral antidiabetic drugs that increase the body's sensitivity to insulin and reduces the production of glucose by the liver. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
alpha-glucosidase inhibitors
An oral antidiabetic drug that temporarily blocks enzymes that digest sugars. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
thiazolidinediones
An oral antidiabetic drug that enhances glucose uptake into tissues. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
meglitinides
An oral antidiabetic drug that stimulates the beta cells in the pancreas to produce insulin. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
nitroglycerin
A cardiovascular drug perscribed to dilate coronary blood vessels before other drugs are used.
Digoxin (Lanoxin)
A cardiovascular drug that helps the heart pump more forcefully in heart failure.
Cholesterol-binding drug
A cardiovascular drug binds to dietary cholesterol and prevents its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract.
Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)
An endocrine drug has estrogen-like effects on bone and on lipid metabolism. Used to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis and breast cancer.
calcitonin
An endocrine drug and thyroid hormone that increases calcium in the blood and promotes bone deposition.
Growth hormone release-inhibiting factor (somatostatin)
An endocrine drug that can be manufactured. It inhibits production of natural growth hormone.
ranitidine (Zantac) and cimetidine (Tagamet)
Gastrointestinal drugs and histamine H2 receptor antagonists that turn off histamine, which promotes secretionof stomach acid.
omeprazole (Prilosec)
A gastrointestinal drug that works by stopping acid production by proton pump inhibition.
Anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) drugs
Gastrointestinal drugs that are used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's. Also used against rheumatoid arthritis.
bronchodilator
A respiratory drug that opens bronchial tubes and is administered by injection or aerosol inhaler.
Steroid drug
A respiratory drug that is inhaled or given intravenously and orally to reduce chronic inflammation in respiratory passageways.
Leukotriene modifier
A respiratory drug that prevent asthma attacks by blocking leukotriene (a bronchocostrictor) from binding to receptors in respiratory tissues.
Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines
Two major categories of sedative-hyponotics that depress the central nervous system and promote drowsiness and sleep.
Benzodiazepine
A minor tranquilizer that controls minor symptoms of anxiety.
Phenothiazines
A major tranquilizer that is used to control more severe disturbances of behavior.
Hospital formulary
The most complete and up-to-date listing of drugs that gives information about their characteristics and clinical usage as approved by that particular hospital.
Antiosteoporosis drugs
Drugs that treat osteoporosis and are designed to increase bone formation, prevent bone loss and increase calcium deposition.
Cox-2 inhibitors
A newer class of NSAIDS that block the effects of a specific part of the pathway that produces prostaglandins. Increase the risk of clots and heart attacks but have fewer GI side effects than tradition NSAIDS.
antifungal medication
Treats fungal infections that occur in the skin, vagina, mouth, bloodstream, and other organs.
antitubercular drug
Treats tuberculosis, a chronic and often drug-resistant infection.
Anaphylactic shock
A severe allergic reaction that could include dyspnea, hypotensin, and, loss of consciousness.