Drug action in which the combination of two similar drugs is equal to the sum of the effects of each
exaggerated hypersensitivity reation to a previously encountered drug or foreign protein
drugs that produce tolerance and dependence and have potential for abuse or addiction
Food and Drug administration (FDA)
U.S. government agency having the legal responsibility for enforcing proper drug manafacture and clinical use
condition caused by treatment (drugs or procedures) given by physicicans or medical personnel
unexpected effect produced in a particularly sensitive patient but not seen in most people
study of new drug synthesis; relationship between chemical structure and biological effects
study of interaction of drugs and their target molecules such as enzymes, or cell surface receptors
drugs are given by injection into the skin, muscles, or veins (any route other than throughthe digestive tract). Examples are subcutaneous, intradermal, intramuscular, intravenous, intrathecal, and intracavitary injections
location for preparing and dispensing drugs; also the study of preparing and dispensing drugs
combination of two drugs causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug alone. Also known as potentiation.
larger and larger drug doses must be given to achieve the desired effect. the patient becomes resistant to the action of a drug as treatment progresses
drugs are applied locally on the skin or mucous membranes of the body; ointments, creams, and lotions are applied topically
United States Pharmacopeia (USP)
authoritative list of drugs, formulas, and preparations that sets a standard for drug manufacturing and dispensing
lowers blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors block the conversation of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (a powerful vasconstrictor)
central nervous system stimulant used to prevent narcolepsy (seizures of sleep), to suppress appetite and to calm hyperkinetic children.
angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs)
lowers blood pressure by preventing angiotensin from acting on receptors in blood vessels
Chemical substance, produced by a plant or microorganism, that has the ability to inhibit or destroy foreign organisms in the body. Examples are antifungals, cephalosporins, erythromycin, tetracycline, antituberculars, penicillins, quinolones, and sulfonamides.
blocks the action of epinephrine at sites on receptors of heart muscle cells, the muscle lining of blood vessels, and bronchial tubes; antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive
central nervous system stimulant that is used in drugs to relieve certain types of headache by constricting cerebral blood vessels.
calcium channel blocker
blocks the entrance of calcium into heart muscle and muscle lining of blood vessels; used as an antiarrhythmic, antianginal, and antihypertensive; also called calcium antagonist
Drugs that act on the heart and blood vessels. This category of drug includes ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, cholesterol-lowering drugs or statins and diuretics
increases the production of urine and thus reduces the volume of fluid in the body; antihypertensive
female hormone that promotes development of secondary sex characteristics and supports reproductive tissues
Relieves symptoms of diseases in gastrointestinal tract. Ex: antacids, antiulcer drugs, antidiarrheals, cathartics, laxatives, purgatives, and antinauseants (antiemetics).
habit-forming drug (potent analgesic) that relieves pain by producing stupor or insensibility (also known as opioids); morphine and opium are examples.
female hormone that stimulates the uterine lining during pregnancy and is also used in treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and for hormone replacement therapy
Treats asthma, emphysema, and infections that affect breathing; bronchodilators are examples
a mildly hypnotic drug that relaxes without necessarily producing sleep. Benzodiazepines are examples.
A type of parenteral administration in which an injection is made into a body cavity such as the peritoneal or pleural cavity,
A procedure in which drugs are introduced into the plerual cavity of people who have pleural effusions due to malignant disease. The drug causes the pleural surfaces to adhere.
A type of parenteral adminitstration in which a shallow injection is made into the upper layers of the skin.
Subcutaneous (hypodermic) injection (SC)
A type of parenteral administration in which a small hypodermic needle is introduced into the subcutaneous tissue under the skin, usually on the upper arm, thigh, or abdomen.
Intramuscular injection (IM)
A type of parenteral administration in which an injection of the muscle is given usually in the buttock or upper arm.
A type of parenteral drug administration in which instillation occurs in the space under the membranes (meninges) surrounding the spinal cord and brain. Also known as a Lumbar puncture.
Intravenous injection (IV)
A type of parenteral drug administration in which the injection is given directly into a vein.
Battery-powered ___, may be used for continuous administration of drugs by the subcutaneous or intravenous route.
A type of topical application that is used to deliver drugs continuously through the skin; such as estrogen for hormone replacement therapy, pain medication, and nicotine for smoking cesation programs.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS)
Act on tissues to inhibit prostaglandins (hormone-like substances that sensitize peripheral pain receptors). Reduces fever, pain, and inflammation.
An anticoagulant that blocks the formation of a number of clot-forming factors in blood. Reversed by Vitamin K.
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)
An anticoagulant that dissolves clots and is used to open vessels after myocardial infarction.
tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
Antidepressants that increase the action of neurotransimtters by blocking their removal (reuptake) from the synapses (spaces between nerve cells). (1)
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
An antidepressant that increases the action of neurotransimtters by blocking their removal (reuptake) from the synapses (spaces between nerve cells). (2)
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
Antidepressants which increase the length of time neurotransmitters work by blocking monoamine oxidase, an enzyme that normally inactivates neurotransmitters.
Drugs used to treat symptoms of Alzheimer disease. They act by aiding brain neurotransmitters (acetylcholine) or sheilding brain cells from glutamate, a neurotransmitter that at high levels contributes to death of brain cells.
An oral antidiabetic drug that lowers the levels of glucose in the blood by stimulating the production of insulin. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
Oral antidiabetic drugs that increase the body's sensitivity to insulin and reduces the production of glucose by the liver. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
An oral antidiabetic drug that temporarily blocks enzymes that digest sugars. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
An oral antidiabetic drug that enhances glucose uptake into tissues. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
An oral antidiabetic drug that stimulates the beta cells in the pancreas to produce insulin. Treats Type-2 diabetes.
A cardiovascular drug perscribed to dilate coronary blood vessels before other drugs are used.
A cardiovascular drug binds to dietary cholesterol and prevents its uptake from the gastrointestinal tract.
Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)
An endocrine drug has estrogen-like effects on bone and on lipid metabolism. Used to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis and breast cancer.
An endocrine drug and thyroid hormone that increases calcium in the blood and promotes bone deposition.
Growth hormone release-inhibiting factor (somatostatin)
An endocrine drug that can be manufactured. It inhibits production of natural growth hormone.
ranitidine (Zantac) and cimetidine (Tagamet)
Gastrointestinal drugs and histamine H2 receptor antagonists that turn off histamine, which promotes secretionof stomach acid.
A gastrointestinal drug that works by stopping acid production by proton pump inhibition.
Anti-TNF (tumor necrosis factor) drugs
Gastrointestinal drugs that are used to treat autoimmune diseases, such as Crohn's. Also used against rheumatoid arthritis.
A respiratory drug that opens bronchial tubes and is administered by injection or aerosol inhaler.
A respiratory drug that is inhaled or given intravenously and orally to reduce chronic inflammation in respiratory passageways.
A respiratory drug that prevent asthma attacks by blocking leukotriene (a bronchocostrictor) from binding to receptors in respiratory tissues.
Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines
Two major categories of sedative-hyponotics that depress the central nervous system and promote drowsiness and sleep.
The most complete and up-to-date listing of drugs that gives information about their characteristics and clinical usage as approved by that particular hospital.
Drugs that treat osteoporosis and are designed to increase bone formation, prevent bone loss and increase calcium deposition.
A newer class of NSAIDS that block the effects of a specific part of the pathway that produces prostaglandins. Increase the risk of clots and heart attacks but have fewer GI side effects than tradition NSAIDS.
Treats fungal infections that occur in the skin, vagina, mouth, bloodstream, and other organs.