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56 terms

Biology

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Cell
A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life
Cell Membrane
The lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of the cell
Cell Theory
This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.
mitosis
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
adult stem cell
a cell present in adult tissues that generates replacements for nondividing differentiated cells
embryonic stem cell
an undifferentiated cell, taken from an embryo, that has the potential to give rise to various other cell or tissue types
meristematic cell
an undifferentiated plant cell that can divide and differentiate to form specialized cells
digestion
The intake of food to physically and chemically break it down into nutrient molecules that can be absorbed and transported by the circulatory system, as well as the removal of solid waste
Mechanical and chemical digestion
Digestion of food physically and chemically into small particles
Absorption digestion
Absorption of particles small enough to pass into the blood system
Assimilation digestion
Passage of food particles into the body cells
Mechanical digestion forms
Teeth and Muscular contractions
Chemical digestion forms
Saliva (amylase)
Gastric Juices (HCI and pepsin)
Enzyme
A protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions
Carcinogen
any substance that produces cancer
malignant
harmful; something bad enough that it could result in death when related to cancer
benign
mild, not cancerous
terminal bud
bud at tip of a stem responsible for terminal growth
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
aids
a disease caused by a virus that attacks the immune system
sars
respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus, infects lungs causing cough and pneumonia
west nile virus
infection is transmitted by mosquitoes and is relatively new to the United States and can cause flu-like symptoms that can result in encephalitis
dermal tissue
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
ground tissue
tissue between the dermal tissue and vascular tissue of a non-woody plant that functions in photosynthesis, storage, and support
vascular tissue
The internal transporting tissue in some plants that is made up of tubelike structures
Use of leaves
Provide a large surface area where photosynthesis can occur
Use of stem
physical support and transportation of water, nutrients and sugars
Use of roots
anchor a plant to the ground and allow it to take up water and minerals from the soil
taproot
main root of a plant growing straight downward from the stem
Fibrous roots
long roots that grow near the surface
Use of flower
the reproductive organ of the plant
Respiration
1. Gas exchange - bringing oxygen into the body and getting rid of carbon dioxide
2. Diffusion - gases across a cell membrane
Importance of respiration
1. Gas exchange
2. Cell metabolism
3. Maintains PH of blood
4. Removes unwanted material from lungs
cell metabolism
the ability of cells to make energy (from sugar, protein, fat) in order to carry out the function(s) of the cell
diffusion
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Circulation
Transportation of material
Why is circulation important
1. Provides the cells with oxygen and nutrients
2. Removes waste
3. Transports disease-fighting agents
4. Controls body temperature
5. Provides a network to all cells in the body
What is blood made up of
Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells
Arteries
blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Veins
blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
Capillaries
tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body
Vascular system
fluid tissue that transports nutrients and other materials
Circulatory system
the progress of fluid is controlled by muscle movements
Cardiovascular system
found in higher animals, the blood is pumped by the action of a specialized organ, the heart
open circulatory system
system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels
closed circulatory system
system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
calories
A measure of the amount of energy in food
Intercellular digestion
the break down of nutrients within a cell. Food particles are taken into the cell before being broken down by enzymes
Extracellular digestion
digestion that takes place outside of the cell. Occurs within a tube arrangement (enters mouth and exits through the anus)
How does the stomach help in digestion
Muscular contractions of the stomach aids in the mechanical breakdown by mixing the food
How does the small intestine help in digestion
absorption of nutrients
How does the large intestine help in digestion
absorption of water,vitamins and removes waste
cloning
making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism
transgenics
When genes of one organism are put into another organism.
genetic screening
the process of testing DNA to determine a person's risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder.
vaccine
medicine that contains a dead or weakened pathogen. It stimulates the immune system