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A membrane bound structure that is the basic unit of life

Cell Membrane

The lipid bilayer that forms the outer boundary of the cell

Cell Theory

This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.


cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes

adult stem cell

a cell present in adult tissues that generates replacements for nondividing differentiated cells

embryonic stem cell

an undifferentiated cell, taken from an embryo, that has the potential to give rise to various other cell or tissue types

meristematic cell

an undifferentiated plant cell that can divide and differentiate to form specialized cells


The intake of food to physically and chemically break it down into nutrient molecules that can be absorbed and transported by the circulatory system, as well as the removal of solid waste

Mechanical and chemical digestion

Digestion of food physically and chemically into small particles

Absorption digestion

Absorption of particles small enough to pass into the blood system

Assimilation digestion

Passage of food particles into the body cells

Mechanical digestion forms

Teeth and Muscular contractions

Chemical digestion forms

Saliva (amylase)
Gastric Juices (HCI and pepsin)


A protein that speeds up the rate of chemical reactions


any substance that produces cancer


harmful; something bad enough that it could result in death when related to cancer


mild, not cancerous

terminal bud

bud at tip of a stem responsible for terminal growth


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information


a disease caused by a virus that attacks the immune system


respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus, infects lungs causing cough and pneumonia

west nile virus

infection is transmitted by mosquitoes and is relatively new to the United States and can cause flu-like symptoms that can result in encephalitis

dermal tissue

The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.

ground tissue

tissue between the dermal tissue and vascular tissue of a non-woody plant that functions in photosynthesis, storage, and support

vascular tissue

The internal transporting tissue in some plants that is made up of tubelike structures

Use of leaves

Provide a large surface area where photosynthesis can occur

Use of stem

physical support and transportation of water, nutrients and sugars

Use of roots

anchor a plant to the ground and allow it to take up water and minerals from the soil


main root of a plant growing straight downward from the stem

Fibrous roots

long roots that grow near the surface

Use of flower

the reproductive organ of the plant


1. Gas exchange - bringing oxygen into the body and getting rid of carbon dioxide
2. Diffusion - gases across a cell membrane

Importance of respiration

1. Gas exchange
2. Cell metabolism
3. Maintains PH of blood
4. Removes unwanted material from lungs

cell metabolism

the ability of cells to make energy (from sugar, protein, fat) in order to carry out the function(s) of the cell


the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration


Transportation of material

Why is circulation important

1. Provides the cells with oxygen and nutrients
2. Removes waste
3. Transports disease-fighting agents
4. Controls body temperature
5. Provides a network to all cells in the body

What is blood made up of

Plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells


blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart


blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart


tiny, thin-walled blood vessels that allow the exchange of gases and nutrients between the blood and the cells of the body

Vascular system

fluid tissue that transports nutrients and other materials

Circulatory system

the progress of fluid is controlled by muscle movements

Cardiovascular system

found in higher animals, the blood is pumped by the action of a specialized organ, the heart

open circulatory system

system in which blood is not always contained within a network of blood vessels

closed circulatory system

system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels


A measure of the amount of energy in food

Intercellular digestion

the break down of nutrients within a cell. Food particles are taken into the cell before being broken down by enzymes

Extracellular digestion

digestion that takes place outside of the cell. Occurs within a tube arrangement (enters mouth and exits through the anus)

How does the stomach help in digestion

Muscular contractions of the stomach aids in the mechanical breakdown by mixing the food

How does the small intestine help in digestion

absorption of nutrients

How does the large intestine help in digestion

absorption of water,vitamins and removes waste


making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism


When genes of one organism are put into another organism.

genetic screening

the process of testing DNA to determine a person's risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder.


medicine that contains a dead or weakened pathogen. It stimulates the immune system

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