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51 terms

Physical Geography

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characteristics of shield volcanoe
basaltic, dome shaped, mid-ocean ridge, formed over hot spots
what is faulting
line can be seen, fault plane in ground,
what is an example of a strike slip fault
San Andres
what is volcanism
movement of magma either into or onto its surface
what is the metamorphic of granite
gneiss
what is the metamorphic of sandstone
quartzite
what is the metamorphic of shale
slate
what is the metamorphic of limestone
marble
what is plate tectonics
movement and interaction of lithospheric plates
what did wegner do
showed africa and s. america were joined, continetal drift, origin of continets and oceans
how many plates are there?
12
what are the characteristics of a divergent plate
sea floor spreading, new rock created, basaltic volcanism, techtonic stress, mid-ocean ridge
what are the characteristics of a convergent plate
subduction, rock destroyed, andositic volcanism, compression, ocean to continent
what is folding and what are examples
Synclines, anticline, alps, andee, himalayas
what did Arthur Holmes do
sonar data, mid-ocean ridge volcanic, convection in mantle due to changes in its density
what did harry hess do
paleomagetism, magnatite in basalt
what is paleomagetism
record of eaths magnetism
what did Vine and Matthews due
magnetometer and magnetic polarity reversals
what is glomar challenge
youngest mid ocean ridge, oldest by trenches
what are Hawaii's two active volcanoes
Kilauea and Mauna Loa
How was hawaii created
formed over hot spots
what would an example of lateral eruption be
Mt. St. Helens
what are characteristics of lococolith
mushroom top, and black hills, SD and they are concordant
what are characteristics of sill
sheet like, Palisades of Hudson R. and are concordant
what are characteristics of batholith
massive and intrusion, Sierra Nevada and are discordant
what are characteristics of a dike
wall like intrustion, associated w/ ship rock and are discordant
what is a glacier
large body of ice that moves
what is continental ice sheets
largets, covers most of glaciers, Greenland and Antartica
what are some impacts of glaciers
going to effect the sea levels, creates icebergs, and earthquakes
what are the different phases of Alpine Glaciers
cirque- beginning, valley- growing, piedmont- outside of valley
what are characteristics of erosion
plucking and abrasion or scrape marks
what are characteristics of deposition
drift, unstratified drift and stratified
how are glaciers formed
climate, meltwater, latitude, elevation and mass
how do glaciers move
pancake batter, mass balance, conveyor belt
how are igneous rocks formed
by cooling and solidification of molten rock
how do extrusive igneous rocks form
from the cooling of lava or the bonding of pyroclastic materials on the aurface
what is subduction
dense oceanic plate slowly and inexorably sinks into the asthenosphere
what is a terrane
is a small-to-medium mass of lithosphere bounded on all sides by faults that may have been carried a long distance by a drifting plate, eventually to converge with the edge of another plate
lava domes
have masses of very viscous lava such as high-silica rhyolite that are too thick and pasty to flow very far
what is a shield volcanoe
basaltic lava tends to flow quite easily over the surrounding surface
what is a cinder cone
smallest of the volcanic peak
what is caldera
large, steepsided, roughly circular depression resulting from the explosion and or collapse of a large volcano
what is one of the most common hazards associated with composite volcanoes
volcanic mudflows
what is volcanic mudflow
a loose mantle of ash and pyroclastic flow deposits on the slopes of a volcano can be mobilized easily by heavy rain or by the melting of snow and glaciers during an eruption
what is a roche mountonnee
produced when a bedrock hill is overrideen by moving ice
moraine
is a general term for glacier deposited landforms composed entirely or largely of till
what is terminal moraine
a ridge of till that marks the outermost limit of glacial advance
what is recessional moraine
may develop as the glacier recedes
what is kettles
can form when large blocks of ice left by a retreating glacier become surrounded or even covered by glacial grift, after the ice melts the morainal surface collapses, leaving an irregular depression
what is cirque
is a broad amphitheater hollowed out at the head of a glacial valley
what is a horn
steep-sided, pyramid-shaped mountain peak formed by expansive quarrying of headwalls where three or more cirques intersect