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Physical Science - Chapter 6

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Typically, atoms gain or lose electrons to achieve
a stable electron configuration.
In an electron dot diagram, the symbol for an element is used to represent
the nucleus and all nonvalence electrons.
Study the electron dot diagrams for lithium, carbon, fluorine, and neon in figure 6-1. Choose the statement that correctly identifies the most stable of the elements.
Neon is mosst stable element because its highest occupied energy level is filled.
In the compound MgCl2, the subscript 2 indicates that
there are two chloride ions for each magnesium ion.
Which of the following is a typical property of an ionic compound?
tendency to shatter when struck.
Which of the following compounds does not contain molecules? H2 CO2 NaCl H2O
NaCl
You see a structural formula in which the symbols for elements are connected by a long dash. You can assume that the chemical bonds in the compound are
covalent
The water molecule H2O is polar because it contains two polar single bonds and
its molecule has a bent shape.
Water has a higher boiling point than expected because
of the strong attractions between polar water molecules.
The elements most likely to form more than one type of ion are the
transition metals.
True or False: Many transition metals can form more than one type of ion.
True
In the name carbon dioxide, the prefix of the second word indicates that a molecule of carbon dioxide contains
two oxygen atoms.
The best description of a metallic bond is
the attraction between a metal cation and a shared pool of electrons.
True or False: Electrons in a metal lattice are free to move.
True
In an electron dot diagram, each dot represents a(n) _____
valence electron
In an ionic compound, the attractions between cations and _____ hold the compound together.
anions
The chemical formula for calcium chloride, CaCl2, shows that the compound contains two _____ ions for every _____ ion.
chlorine; calcium
The ions in solid sodium chloride are arranged in a structure called a(n) _____ lattice.
crystal
A polar covalent bond forms when _____ are not shared equally between atoms.
valence electrons
A(n) _____ ion is a covalently bonded group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
polyatomic
In ionic compounds, the sum of the charges of all the cations and the anions must be _____
zero
The metallic bonds in a transition metal, such as tungsten, are stronger than the metallic bonds in a(n) _____ metal, such as sodium.
alkali
In a metal lattice, _____ are surrounded by a pool of shared electrons.
cations
In its simplest form, tha alloy brass consists of zinc and _____.
copper
In a perodic table that included electron dot diagrams in which column would the diagrams contain more dots: Group A - Alkaline or Group 7-Halogens?
Group 7A the halogens
In an electron dot diagrams of rubidium there is one dot. In electron dot diagrams silicon there are four dots. Which element would you expect to be more reactive.
rubidium
Potassium, an alkali metal, and bromine, a halogen, are both in period four of the periodic table. Which element has a higher ionization energy. Explain your answer.
Bromine because it gains an electron instead of losing one.
Which material is most likely to shatter if you strike with a hammer - sodium chloride or bronze?
sodium chloride
Mixing magnesium and aluminum together produces an excellent lightweight material from which to make airplane parts. What is this type of mixture called?
an alloy
How are metalic bonds and ionic bonds similar? different?
in both metallic and ionic bonds there are attractions between particles with positive and negative charges - cations and electrons in a metallic bond, and cations and anions in an ionic bonds. Ionic bonds are found in compounds. Metallic bonds are found in single metal or in alloys.
Fluorine is the most reactive non-metal. to fluorines immediate right in the periodic table is neon, a noble gas that does not form chemical bonds. Explain this contrast in reactivity in terms of atomic structure.
the electron configuration of an element determines its reactivity. fluorine with 7 balance electrons tends to gain one electron to fill its hightest occupied energy level. Neon with eight balance electrons has a stable electron configuration, neon's highest occupied energy level holds the maximum possible number of electrons.
Water droplets tend to have a spherical round shape. Explain this fact in terms of the polar nature of water molecules.
Because water molecules are polar, there are strong attractions between water molecules. The molecules on the surface of water droplets are pulled toward the center by their attractions to water molecules below the surface.
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