Elizabethan period

1 fallow land is dug or ploughed but is not used for growing crops:
They let the land lie fallow for a year.
2 fallow period a time when nothing is done or achieved:
The band went through a fallow period in the late 90s.
written in the form of poetry, with a pattern of strong and weak beats
a word or part of a word which contains a single vowel sound
1 someone in the past whose job was to make written copies of official documents
2 a journalist - used humorously
to make a situation that has existed for some time legal or official
—regularization noun [uncountable]
too quiet to be heard [≠ audible]:
The noise of the wind made her cries inaudible.
—inaudibly adverb:
'No,' she whispered, almost inaudibly.

—inaudibility noun [uncountable]
1 happy and full of energy and excitement:
an exuberant personality

2 exuberant decorations, patterns etc are exciting and complicated or colourful:
exuberant carvings

—exuberance noun [uncountable]
She needs to try and control her natural exuberance.

—exuberantly adverb
if someone or something has primacy, they are the best or most important person or thing
primacy of
the primacy of the family

We must give primacy to education.
someone who works for an employer for a fixed period of time in order to learn a particular skill or job:
She works in the hairdresser's as an apprentice.

an apprentice electrician

—apprentice verb [transitive usually passive]
He was apprenticed to a local architect.

happening, printed etc after someone's death:
a posthumous collection of his articles

—posthumously adverb:
He was posthumously awarded the Military Cross.
1 to make something difficult to know or understand:
Recent successes have obscured the fact that the company is still in trouble.

2 to prevent something from being seen or heard clearly:
The view was obscured by mist.
1 [intransitive and transitive] to move around within a system, or to make something do this:
Swimming helps to get the blood circulating through the muscles.

Ceiling fans circulated warm air around the room.

2 [intransitive] if information, facts, ideas etc circulate, they become known by many people:
Rumours began circulating that the Prime Minister was seriously ill.

3 [transitive] to send goods, information etc to people:
The group circulated petitions calling for a federal law to ban handguns.

4 [intransitive] to talk to a lot of different people in a group, especially at a party
1 an arrangement in which two or more countries, groups etc agree to work together to try to change or achieve something
alliance with
Britain's military alliance with her NATO partners

alliance between
the possibility of a political alliance between the two parties

make/enter into/form/forge an alliance (=agree to work together)
The companies have formed an alliance to market the product.

2 a group of two or more countries, groups etc who work together to achieve something:
independent organizations and alliances
if someone in authority vetoes something, they refuse to allow it to happen, especially something that other people or organizations have agreed
veto legislation/a measure/a proposal etc
President Bush vetoed the bill on July 6.

2 to refuse to accept a particular plan or suggestion:
Jenny wanted to invite all her friends, but I quickly vetoed that idea
1prefer to prefer someone or something to other things or people, especially when there are several to choose from:
Both countries seem to favour the agreement.

loose clothing of the type favoured in Arab countries

favour somebody/something over somebody/something
Florida voters favored Bush over Gore by a very small margin.

2give an advantage to treat someone much better than someone else, in a way that is not fair:
a tax cut that favours rich people

favour somebody over somebody
a judicial system that favours men over women
people who belong to a high social class:
a member of the landed gentry (=gentry who own land)
forming a preface or introduction:
a few prefatory remarks
people who belong to a high social class:
a member of the landed gentry (=gentry who own land
people who belong to a high social class:
a member of the landed gentry (=gentry who own land

written language in its usual form, as opposed to poetry
relating to amounts rather than to the quality or standard of something [↪ qualitative]
quantitative analysis/methods/data etc
We need to do a proper quantitative analysis of this problem.

—quantitatively adverb
a trifle formal slightly
a trifle eccentric/odd/unexpected etc

2 [countable] old-fashioned something unimportant or not valuable:
There's no point in arguing over trifles.

3 [uncountable and countable] a cold British sweet dish made of layers of cake, fruit, jelly, custard, and cream
1do work [transitive] to do the things that are necessary to complete a job:
I handled most of the paperwork.

The case is being handled by a top lawyer.

The finance department handles all the accounts.

Computers can handle huge amounts of data.

2deal with a situation [transitive] to deal with a situation or problem by behaving in a particular way and making particular decisions:
if a new idea, product, or method supersedes another one, it becomes used instead because it is more modern or effective [= replace]:
Their map has since been superseded by photographic atlases.
something that you say, do, or give in order to express your respect or admiration for someone:
The players wore black armbands as a tribute to their late teammate.

I'd like to pay tribute to (=praise and admire publicly) the party workers for all their hard work.

2 be a tribute to somebody/something to be a clear sign of the good qualities that someone or something has:
It was a tribute to her teaching methods that so many children passed the test
to be a sign that something will happen later
to stop opposing someone or something that is stronger than you, and allow them to take control [= give in]
succumb to
Succumbing to pressure from the chemical industry, Governor Blakely amended the regulations.

Gina succumbed to temptation and had a second serving of cake.
the exciting last part of a story or play:
The plot takes us to Paris for the denouement of the story.
reasonable and likely to be true or successful [≠ implausible]:
His story certainly sounds plausible.

a plausible explanation

2 someone who is plausible is good at talking in a way that sounds reasonable and truthful, although they may in fact be lying:
a plausible liar
having a lot of small parts or details put together in a complicated way:
pure silks embroidered with elaborate patterns

2 carefully planned and organized in great detail:
a very elaborate telecommunications network

—elaborately adverb:
an elaborately carved wooden statue
a robust person is strong and healthy:
a robust man of six feet four

2 a robust system, organization etc is strong and not likely to have problems:
The formerly robust economy has begun to weaken.

3 a robust object is strong and not likely to break [= sturdy]:
a robust metal cabinet
be interspersed with something if something is interspersed with a particular kind of thing, it has a lot of them in it:
sunny periods interspersed with showers

2 intersperse something with something to put something in between pieces of speech or writing, parts of a film etc
to talk or write about something that is not your main subject:
Do you mind if I digress for a moment?

—digression noun [uncountable and countable]
After several long digressions he finally reached the interesting part of the story.

1 simple, old-fashioned, and not spoiled by modern developments, in a way that is typical of the countryside:
The village had a certain rustic charm.

2 [only before noun] roughly made from wood:
a rustic chair

—rusticity noun [uncountable]
to ride or make a horse run quite fast, but not as fast as possible [↪ gallop]

—canter noun [countable]
She rode off at a canter.
used to describe a person or the actions of a person who is not embarrassed about behaving in a wrong or immoral way:
her brazen admission that she was cheating on him

2 literary having a shiny yellow colour
something that is tedious continues for a long time and is not interesting [= boring]:
The work was tiring and tedious.

—tediously adverb:
a tediously long film

1 happy and full of energy and excitement:
an exuberant personality

2 exuberant decorations, patterns etc are exciting and complicated or colourful:
exuberant carvings

—exuberance noun [uncountable]
She needs to try and control her natural exuberance.

—exuberantly adverb
when someone is not drunk:
John had periods of sobriety, but always went back to drinking.

2 behaviour that shows a serious attitude to life
especially British English a small book that advertises a school, college, new business etc

2 a document produced by a company that wants the public to buy its shares
very strong admiration or excitement
with ardour
They sang with real ardour.

2 literary strong feelings of love
countable] a warm piece of clothing like a coat without sleeves that hangs loosely from your shoulders

2 [singular] an organization, activity, or way of behaving that deliberately protects someone or keeps something secret
cloak of
the cloak of secrecy around the affair

cloak for
The political party is used as a cloak for terrorist activities.

under the cloak of something
prejudice hiding under the cloak of religion
to spoil or reduce the value of something that was perfect:
a scandal that sullied his reputation
imperious a
giving orders and expecting to be obeyed, in a way that seems too proud:
She raised her hand in an imperious gesture.

—imperiously adverb

—imperiousness noun [uncountable]
to hold an official ceremony when someone starts doing an important job in government
a very strong belief or opinion
to escape from a difficult or embarrassing situation or to help smn escape
to do something very well, or much better than most people
excel at/in
Rick has always excelled at foreign languages.

2 excel yourself British English to do something better than you usually do:
Graham has excelled himself with the new exhibition.
to disapprove of something very strongly and criticize it severely,especially public
someone who practices sodomy
discussing many different ideas,facts,etc,without always having a clear purpose
the state of not being known or remembered
fade/slide/sink etc into obscurity
The group produced two albums before disappearing into obscurity
a group of people that are chosen to make rules, laws, or decisions, or to give advice:
the council for civil liberties

the UN Security Council

2 the organization that is responsible for local government in a particular area in Britain:
local council elections

He sent a letter to the council to complain about the noise.
happening at the beginning [= first]:
an initial investment of £5000

initial stage/phase/period
the initial stages of the disease

The initial response has been encouraging
if liquid, gas etc permeates something, it enters it and spreads through every part of it:
The smell of diesel oil permeated the air.

permeate through/into
Rain permeates through the ground to add to ground water levels.

2 [transitive] if ideas, beliefs, emotions etc permeate something, they are present in every part of it:
Racism continues to permeate our society.

An emotional intensity permeates every one of O'Connor's songs
deduce v
to use the knowledge and information you have in order to understand something or form an opinion about it
deduce that
From her son's age, I deduced that her husband must be at least 60.

deduce from
What did Darwin deduce from the presence of these species?

—deducible adjective
uncountable] an attitude that shows you have too high an opinion of your own abilities or importance [= conceitedness]:
The conceit of the woman!

2 [countable] technical an unusual way of showing or describing something in a play, film, work of art etc:
His sermons were full of puns and conceits.
without any writing, print, or recorded sound:
Leave the last page blank.

a blank cassette

2 a blank face or look shows no emotion, understanding, or interest [↪ blankly]
blank face/look/expression/eyes
Zoe looked at me with a blank expression.

She gazed at him in blank astonishment.
to let fresh air into a room,building,etc
a speech in a play in which a character, usually alone on the stage, talks to himself or herself so that the audience knows their thoughts [↪ monologue]
physical or mental energy and determination
with vigour
He began working with renewed vigour.
a period of tiöe between two events or situatons,during which something different happens
a short period of time between the parts of a play,concert etc
expressing very severe pain
to carry out a particular activity or process,especially in order to get information or prove facts
a picture,shape or object that is used to represent a country,organization etc
behaving in an unpleasant or rude way because you think you are more important than other people:
He was unbearably arrogant.

an arrogant attitude
a strong desire to have or achieve something =ambition
to perform clever tricks in which you seem to make things appear,disappear or change by magic
a malignant disease is one such as cancer,which can develop in an uncontrolled way and is likely to cause smb's death
an action or official decision that can be used to give support to later actions or decisions
to practice or make people practice something such as a play or concert in order to prepare for a public performance
to take someone else's power, position, job etc when you do not have the right to:
There were a couple of attempts to usurp the young king.

—usurper noun [countable]

—usurpation noun [uncountable]
used to say that a person or thing is a typical example or the most important example of something