50 terms

SOL WHI.6: Ancient Rome

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Hellenistic
Alexander the Great helped to spread this type of culture (mix of Greek and oriental elements) through trade
Rome
City and empire centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant from eastern Mediterranean powers
Italian
Rome is located on this peninsula
Alps
This mountain range provides protection for Rome
Mediterranean
This sea provided Rome with protection and means of trade/commerce
polytheistic Mythology
Roman mythology was based on Greek Polytheistic religious beliefs and explained natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events and included gods like Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, and Venus
Patricians
The powerful nobility who were few in number in teh Roman Republic (were citizens)
Plebeian
The majority of the population in the Roman Republic (were citizens)
Slaves
The group who had no rights and who's status at the bottom of the social ladder was not based on race
Republic
Type of democracy where citizens elect representatives to speak for them in government
Senate
Body of lawmakers who serve for a lifetime and are usually wealthy patricians
Assemblies
Body of lawmakers which is made of plebians
Consuls
Leaders who are elected to guide government (two serve at a time)
Twelve tables
The Laws of Rome which are hung in teh Forum
Punic Wars
Conflict which took place between Rome and Carthage (in North Africa) over who would control trade in the Mediterranean (took place 264-146 B.C.)
Hannibal
Leader of Carthage who invaded the Italian peninsula
Rome
Winner of the Punic Wars which allowed them to expande trade and wealth
Slavery
The spread of this practice caused small farmers to abandon their land because they couldn't comptete with large estates (this led to the fall of the Republic)
Julius Caesar
The Republic fell because of civil war over the power of this leader who was killed by members of the Senate
Deflation
Roman currency lost its value which helped lead to inflation and the and of the Republic.
First Triumvirate
This was a group of three people, including Julius Caesar, which took power of Rome after the Republic fell
Augustus Caesar
This was the adopted son of Julius Caesar who defeated Marc Antony in the civil war which erupted after Julius's death and became the first emperor
Economy
The source of power for Roman emporers
Emperors
The failure to provide for the peaceful succession of helped emperors helped weaken the empire
Pax Romana
This was a 200 year period of peace and prosperity under imperial rule when Rome expanded, especially into the Near East
Currency
They established a uniform system of this which helped facilitate trade
Roads
Built these which provided a safe means for trade and travel which promoted prosperity and stability, increased the emphasis on family, created a civil service, and developed a uniform rule of law
Christianity
This religion had its roots in Judaism and conflicted with the polytheistic beliefs of the Roman empire
Jesus
Founder of Christianity who was proclaimed the Messiah (savior)
Incarnation
Jesus is seen as both the Son and embodiment of God
New Testament
The teachings of Christianity are written in one book this book
Church Councils
Early Christian doctrines were established by these
Apostles
Group of Jesus' followers who carried Christianity throughout the Roman empire, despite the persecution from Roman authorities
Constantine
This man adopted and legalized Christianity in the Edict of Milan
Church
In the late Roman Empire loyalty to this institution became more important than loyalty to the Emperor and this institution also became the main unifying force of Western Europe
Pantheon
This building was buily originally as a temple to the Roman gods/goddesses
Coliseum
This building was built to hold sporting events
Forum
This building served as the center for political meetings and was the place where the Twelve Tables was hung
Aqueducts
These were created by Romans to move clean water into the cities
Arches
This architectural element was developed by Romans and served as a support structure in buildings
Roads
These were the most advanced type built to date and were important to the empire because they facilitated trade and the movement of people and armies throughout the huge empire
Ptolemy
This man is a famous Roman scientist and astronomer who wrote the authoritative text, The Almagest
Latin
The language of the Roman empire
Romance languages
Latin was transformed and mixed with Germanic languages to create these (like French, Spanish, Portugese)
Virgil
Author of Aeneid
Christianity
The religion adopted by most of the Roman Empire after it was spread by the apostles
Twelve Tables
The principle of "innocent until proven guilty" came from this compilation of Roman law
Roman Legions
The decline of the Empire was linked to the decline of this (cost of defense was too much, the Roman currency was devalued)
Invaders
The military of Rome was weakened which helped lead to the decline of the Western Roman Empire because this group was joining
Germanic Tribes
The invasions of these groups helped cause the decline and fall of the Roman Western Empire
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