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26-adult, 33-child, encloses and protects the spinal cord and serves as a point of attachment for the ribs and back muscles
a space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that surrounds the spinal cord and through which CSF circulates
a space between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral canal, containing areolar connective tissue and a plexus of veins
posterior (dorsal) root
the structure composed of sensory axon lying between a spinal nerve and the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal cord
anterior (ventral) root
the structure composed of axons of motor neurons that emerges from the anterior aspect of the spinal cord and extends laterally to join a posterior root, forming a spinal nerve
a microscopic tube running the length of the spinal cord in the gray commisure. channel running longitudinally in the center of the osteon of mature compact bone
a branch of spinal nerve containing motor and sensory axons supplying the muscles, skin, and bones of the posterior part of the head, neck, and trunk
the anterior branch of a spinal nerve containing sensory and motor fibers to the muscles and skin of the anterior surface of the head, neck, trunk, and the limbs
the ability of the ANS to maintain homeostasis depends on a continual flow of ______________________ in visceral organs and blood vessels into the CNS.
hypothalamus, brain stem
The ANS is regulated by the centers in the brain, mainly the __________ and the __________________
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, many glands
Autonomic motor neurons regulate the activity of ___________, ___________________, ___________
the _________ regulates the balance of sympathetic vs. parasympathetic activity of autonomic tone
sweat glands, arrector pili, kidneys, spleen, blood vessels, adrenal medulla
name 6 structures that receive only sympathetic innervation
dorsal root ganglion
A group of sensory neuron cell bodies found just posterior to the spinal cord on either side.
radial nerve damage
can be caused from a tight cast or improper deltoid injection, results in wrist drop
median nerve damage
can be caused by repetitive strain (typing) and results in carpal tunnel syndrome
femoral nerve damage
loss of sensation in leg and anteromedial aspect of thigh, inability to extend leg
sciatic nerve damage
pain in buttocks, could be caused by pregnancy, sitting on wallet, or improper IM injection
sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector
name the order of the reflex arc
reflex where you are not consciously aware such as smooth, cardiac, and most glands
results in plantar flexion, inability of reflex could be a result of subarachnoid hemorrhages
the sympathetic and parasympathetic can excite or inhibit, this is due to the release of different _________________ and their effect
one or more regions within the CNS that relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons
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