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vertebral column

26-adult, 33-child, encloses and protects the spinal cord and serves as a point of attachment for the ribs and back muscles

dura mater

the outermost of the three meninges of the brain and spinal cord

arachnoid mater

the middle layer of the three meninges of the brain and spinal cord

pia mater

the innermost of the three meninges of the brain and spinal cord

subarachnoid space

a space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater that surrounds the spinal cord and through which CSF circulates

spinal tap

withdrawing CSF from subarachnoid space (L3-L4, L4-L5)

epidural space

a space between the spinal dura mater and the vertebral canal, containing areolar connective tissue and a plexus of veins


where does the dural sac end?


where does the spinal cord end?

cervical enlargement

occurs in the upper limb nerves

lumbar enlargement

occurs in the lower limb nerves

conus medullaris

the tapered portion of the spinal cord inferior to the lumbar enlargement

cauda equina

a tail-like array of roots of spinal nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord

spinal nerves

31 pairs, mixed, originate in spinal cord from posterior and anterior roots

posterior (dorsal) root

the structure composed of sensory axon lying between a spinal nerve and the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal cord

anterior (ventral) root

the structure composed of axons of motor neurons that emerges from the anterior aspect of the spinal cord and extends laterally to join a posterior root, forming a spinal nerve

central canal

a microscopic tube running the length of the spinal cord in the gray commisure. channel running longitudinally in the center of the osteon of mature compact bone


connective tissue wrapping around individual nerve axons


a small bundle or cluster around the endoneurium that consists of axons


connective tissue wrapping around fascicles in a nerve


the superficial connective tissue covering around an entire nerve

dorsal ramus

a branch of spinal nerve containing motor and sensory axons supplying the muscles, skin, and bones of the posterior part of the head, neck, and trunk

ventral ramus

the anterior branch of a spinal nerve containing sensory and motor fibers to the muscles and skin of the anterior surface of the head, neck, trunk, and the limbs

reflex arcs

the autonomic nervous system operates via _____________

nerve impulses

the ability of the ANS to maintain homeostasis depends on a continual flow of ______________________ in visceral organs and blood vessels into the CNS.

conscious control

The ANS usually operates without _______________________________

hypothalamus, brain stem

The ANS is regulated by the centers in the brain, mainly the __________ and the __________________


Sensory input from the ANS is mostly from _______________

skeletal muscle

Somatic nervous system effectors are _______________

smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, many glands

Autonomic motor neurons regulate the activity of ___________, ___________________, ___________

thoracolumbar division

the sympathetic division is also called the ________________________

craniosacral division

the parasympathetic division is also called the ________________________


the _________ regulates the balance of sympathetic vs. parasympathetic activity of autonomic tone

sweat glands, arrector pili, kidneys, spleen, blood vessels, adrenal medulla

name 6 structures that receive only sympathetic innervation

exercise, emergency, excitement, embarassment

name 4 "E situations"

salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation, digestion

SLUDD stands for?


How many pairs of spinal nerves?


how many pairs of cervical?


how many pairs of thoracic?


how many pairs of lumbar?


how many pairs of sacral?


how many pairs of coccygeal?


where is the grey mater in the spinal cord?


where is the white mater in the spinal cord?

dorsal root ganglion

A group of sensory neuron cell bodies found just posterior to the spinal cord on either side.

L3-L4, L4-L5

where is the spinal tap or lumbar puncture taken?

phrenic nerve

innervates the diaphragm

cervical plexus

supplies skin and muscles of the neck and supports the shoulders

brachial plexus

supplies shoulders and upper limbs

radial nerve damage

can be caused from a tight cast or improper deltoid injection, results in wrist drop

median nerve damage

can be caused by repetitive strain (typing) and results in carpal tunnel syndrome

ulnar nerve damage

results in inability to adduct or abduct fingers and "claw hand"

lumbar plexus

supplies the abdominal wall, external genitals, and lower limbs

femoral nerve damage

loss of sensation in leg and anteromedial aspect of thigh, inability to extend leg

sacral plexus

supplies buttocks, perineum, lower limbs

sciatic nerve damage

pain in buttocks, could be caused by pregnancy, sitting on wallet, or improper IM injection


the intercostal nerves extend from what to what?

intercostal nerves

do not enter into a plexus, directly inervates into space

sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integrating center, motor neuron, effector

name the order of the reflex arc

spinal reflex

reflex action in the gray mater of the spinal cord

cranial reflex

reflex action in the brain stem

somatic reflex

reflex where you are aware of involved contractions

autonomic reflex

reflex where you are not consciously aware such as smooth, cardiac, and most glands

babinski sign

reflex action when stroked, the toes fan upwards

neurons are not myelinated

why do the toes fan upwards instead of plantar flexion?

achilles reflex

results in plantar flexion, inability of reflex could be a result of subarachnoid hemorrhages

patellar reflex

damage could be caused by chronic diabetes or syphillis to this reflex

rest and digest activities

the parasympathetic response prepares the body for?

sympathetic response

fight or flight is associated with?


the sympathetic and parasympathetic can excite or inhibit, this is due to the release of different _________________ and their effect


mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors, nocireceptors are examples of?


another name for "branch"


another name for "braid"

ipsilateral reflex

reflex on the same side as the stimulus

monosynaptic reflex

presence of a single synapse in a reflex


fast, involuntary, unplanned response to a stimulus

sensory receptor

responds to a stimulus by producing a generator or receptor potential

sensory neuron

axon conducts impulses from receptor to integrating center

integrating center

one or more regions within the CNS that relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons

motor neuron

axon conducts impulses from integrating center to effector


muscle or gland that response to motor nerve impulses

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