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a molecule that transports energy from the cell breakdown of food molecules to cell processes; adenine triphosphate


lower energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group; adenine diphosphate


a process that captures energy from the sunlight to make sugars that store chemical energy


a molecule in chloroplasts that absorbs some of the energy in visible light


stacks of coin shaped, membrane enclosed compartments; contain chlorophyll and protiens

light-dependent reactions

capture energy from the sunlight; take place within and across the membranes of the thylakoids

light-independent reactions

use energy from the light dependent reactions to make energy; occur in the stoma of the chloroplasts


during light-dependent reactions, energy is captured and transferred in the thylakoid membranes by two groups of molecules

electron transport chain

a series of proteins in the membrane of the thylakoid

ATP synthase

large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP

Calvin Cycle

chemical reactions that use carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere and the energy carried by ATP and NADPH go make simple sugars

cellular respiration

releases chemical energy from sugars and other carbon based molecules to make ATP when oxygen is present


a process that needs oxygen in order to take place


splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules and makes two molecules of ATP


a process that does not need oxygen to take place

krebs cycle

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions


A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.

lactic acid

Produced in muscle cells from the reduction of pyruvate (under anaerobic conditions) to regenerate NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue. A rise in lactic acid usually accompanies an increase in physical activity.

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