Jefferson didn't like Constitution, or National Bank. Democratic Republican, anti-Hamiltonian. Stopped funding Navy. Dominated by Embargo Act. Secretary of State was Madison.
Election of 1800
With Adams unpopular and the Federalist party failing, Democratic Republicans Jefferson and Burr tied this election. It went to the House of Representatives, and Jefferson won with the support of Hamilton. This was a shift in political power from the Federalists to the Democratic Republicans. It also led to the creation of the 12th amendment.
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
Vice President Burr
"Self-serving political opportunist". Killed Hamilton in duel. Involved in Burr Conspiracy.
Judiciary Act of 1801
This was an effort to solve an issue in the Supreme Court. It first reduced the number of seats from 6 to 5, and also reorganized the circuit courts.
Midnight Justices of March 3rd
President Adams signed papers for these Supreme Court Judges on midnight before President Jefferson's inauguration. The court case of Marbury v. Madison involved one of them (Marbury).
Signed the Declaration of Independence. Federalist. Appointed by Washington to Supreme Court. Impeached (1804) by House of Representatives for discrimination on the bench against Jeffersonians. Found not guilty in front of Senate. Verdict discouraged further attempts to impeach justices for purely political reasons.
Chief Justice John Marshall
Federalist Chief Justice of the Supreme court from 1801 on. presided over important cases, including Fletcher v. Peck, McCulloch v. Maryland, Dartmouth v. Woodward, and Gibbons v. Ogden
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional. "a latent veto power"
Tripolitan War/Barbary Pirates
1801; the Barbary Pirates demanded tribute from the US, but instead of paying up as Washington and Adams had done before him, Jefferson refused. The US won this conflict, establishing the nation as a force to be reckoned with.
Treaty of San Ildefanso
1800 secret treaty between Spain and France in which Spain gave France the territory west of the Mississippi River (what becomes Louisiana Territory)
1803 Bought from France. Paid total of $15 million. Tallyrand asked Livingston what the US would pay for all the Louisiana Purchase. Doubled national domain. Extraconstitutional act, technically unconstitutional.
5th president of the US, Republican. During his presidency: Erie Canal, Missouri Compromise, Monroe Doctrine
Leader of the famous expedition lasting from 1803-1806. Documented many facts about nature while on journey. Was in the army at one point, that's how he met Clark. Died from suicide, most likely caused by depression.
Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchaced Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer. Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806. They traveled up Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River.
a Native American that belonged to the Shosone tribe that helped Lewis and Clark on their journey; translated for them, their guide.
Election of 1804
With the Louisiana purchase making him so popular, Jefferson won this election easily. Clinton became VP. These results led to the Essex Junto.
A group of lawyers and merchants who tried to break New England off from the US. Failed to get support from Alexander Hamilton, but got support from Aaron Burr. This further discredits the Federalists when Burr loses in a run in NYC for mayor/some position.
(Edmund?) He was the first Attorney General (1789)and the secretary of state in 1793. Most notable for defending Burr, who was tried for treason in 1807.
Burr got lands close to Texas and joined forces with General James Wilkinson (turns Burr in later) to move a private army there and when war start with Spain, fight for and claim some territory.
During Napoleonic Wars, France was fighting w/ Britain and wanted to control Britain. They did not trade w/ each other, but US engaged in re-export trade and became the middle man.
British Royal Navy taking British subjects and drafting them into the navy. Issue for US b/c they took many Americans. US couldn't fight back b/c had no strong navy.
1807 Prohibited American ships from engaging in any type of foreign trade. It was one of the origins of the War of 1812. Under Jefferson.
1809 Replaced the Embargo Act. It lifted all restrictions on American foreign trading except for those on British and French ports. It was meant to damage the economies of Britain and France, and was one of the origins of the War of 1812. Under Madison.
Marbury v. Madison
At the end of Adams' presidency, he made a lot of courts and signed a bunch of "midnight justices" to rule over them, all being Federalists. Not all of the orders could be processed in time, so when Jefferson found out, he told Madison not to process the rest of them. Marbury, one of the midnight justices whose order didn't get processed in time, took the case directly to the Supreme Court, arguing that because Adams was in power at the time of the signing, his order should be processed. Chief Justice John Marshall rules against Marbury, arguing that the part of the Constitution protecting the rights of the midnight justices was unconstitutional (?). In doing so, he "sacrificed a pawn for the win" because the Supreme Court now had the right to rule federal laws unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Hunter's Lessee
Martin, a British guy, was left land by his uncle, a loyalist. However, upon coming to VA, he found the state had already sold a portion of his land. Martin brought this to the VA court of appeals, lost, and then appealed to the Supreme Court, which ruled in his favor on the grounds of having appellate jurisdiction. This case showed that the Supreme Court can override a state court's ruling in order to maintain a uniform law system throughout the country.
Fletcher v. Peck
One of the first cases where the Supreme Court found a state law to be unconstitutional; over the Georgian government passing a law selling Yazoo Land territory, and then repealing it, and over who then had the right over the land; was a test case; Peck won
Dartmouth v. Woodward
New Hampshire attempts to make Dartmouth a public university. Implements a new board of trustees and gives important school documents to Woodward, the legislative representative of the state. Court rules in favor of Dartmouth by arguing that the school's original charter, an agreement between Dartmouth and Henry III, could not be compromised by the government of New Hampshire, and that they as such had no right to turn New Hampshire into a public university.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Case verifying constitutionality of the National Bank. Maryland created an act attempting to tax the national bank. If Maryland could tax the federal bank, it would have more power than all the other states combined. Bank ruled constitutional, act was invalidated.
Gibbons v. Ogden
main issue is the commerce clause/ steamboat going between new jersey and NY interstate commerce
General William Henry Harrison
Had continually appropriated land from Indians. Might have been a source of frustration for Indians.
"We will trade with both Britain and France" "If Britain stops seizing ships, we will slap an embargo on France. If France stops seizing ships, we will slap an embargo on Britain." Napoleon slaps us later with a PSYCH!
War Hawks and Doves
They were people in Congress who supported the idea of going to war with England. The term was coined by John Randolph of Roanoke. Notable members of this group were Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. The contrasting group advocated for peace and supported lack of military pressure to solve a conflict.
War of 1812
War with Britain; caused by Macon's Bill No. 2, anti-British sentiments from issues like western indians and economy, and also territorial expansion and prestige for America; Burning of Washington D.C.
Burning of DC
As part of their three-pronged war strategy, Britain sailed up to Washington and burned several important buildings, including the library of congress.
Battle of Lake Champlain (Plattsburg)
Battle that ended northern state invasion during the War of 1812 in Plattsburg, NY. American victory. It took place shortly before the signing of the Treaty of Ghent. American leaders: Thomas MacDonough and Alexander Macomb. British leaders: George Prevost and George Downie.
Treaty of Ghent
1814 in Ghent, Belgium. Treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the US and Britain. Britain was in no hurry to sign a peace treaty, and hoped the US would abandon NW territory to Indians. The treaty restored relations between the countries to antebellum (as they were pre-war). It was also then that Britain recognized the US as a nation.
Battle of New Orleans
1815 Battle that occurred after the Treaty of Ghent, that officially ended the War of 1812. Made General Andrew Jackson a national hero, and also made American think they won. British lead by Pakenham, set off with 60 ships from Jamaica. Battled for 2 weeks. Discredits Federalists b/c they've been opposing the war.
General Andrew Jackson
Became a national hero after the Battle of New Orleans. Major general of volunteers. After his men beat the Creek Indians in Alabama, he was assigned to defend the Gulf Coast. Later became 7th president after John Quincy Adams.
Principle of Intervention
Used by the Concert of Europe (Quadruple/Quituple Alliance between Russian, Prussia, Britain, Austria and France) allowing them to invade a country and suppress a revolution; considered during Mexican Independence
A Venezuelan military and political leader. He played a key role in Hispanic America's struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire (successful).
De-facto governments of Latin America
A government coming out from revolution; America publicly accepted, and with the Monroe Doctrine, protected, these governments.
1823- The US would not interfere in South America, but an attempt of European control in independent nations would create unfriendly relations with the US, and would be seen as acts of aggression.
writ of mandamus
The writ of mandamus was a power that was given to the Supreme Court in the Jefferson Administration as a sort of checks and balances policy. The writ of mandamus was supposed to be used by the Supreme Court as the saw fit in order to force another branch of the government to do something that was believed to be necessary. The writ of mandamus was brought into question in the court case Marbury v. Madison. This is because Marbury argued to the Supreme Court to issue the writ of mandamus so that he may be able to get a commission. The court decided that they should not be able to force other branches of the government to do something that they saw fit because of the writ of mandamus.
(Dec. 15, 1814-Jan. 4, 1815) Meeting to consider the problems of New England in the War of 1812 (not aware of Treaty of Ghent yet).
55. Also wanted to change Constitution in favor of New England; 1) Prohibit any trade embargo over 60 days; 2) Require a two-thirds Congressional majority to declare war, admit new state, or interdiction of foreign commerce; 3) Remove the three-fifths representation advantage of the South; 4) Limit future Presidents to one term; 5) Require each President to be from a different state than his predecessor.
A policy of nonparticipation in international economic and political relations
1. Encourages protective tariffs. This became a sectional issue w/ N and S
Smoothing over of tensions from War of 1812 between America and Britain; trade resumed and a joint commission to settle boundary confusion was made
Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817
Limited America and Britain to one 100 ton ship on Lake Champlain and Lake Ontario after War of 1812
Transcontinental (Adams-Onis) Treaty
Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The US paid $5 million, but it was not paid to Spain: it was paid to Americans with claims to the Spanish government.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work. An intellectual, not in tune with public perception. Became Representative in the House after Jackson was elected President.
Russia had been going down west coast. Established that southern boundary of Russian territory was 54〫40' line.
Each section of the United States valued their needs more than the needs of a country as a whole.
Depression of 1819
Caused by decreased agricultural demand, was really a sort of agricultural depression.
Second Bank of the United States
1816-1836, Created to control and regulate money, in hopes of combatting inflation and the budget deficit. It was larger than the First Bank ($7 million), chartering $35 million. It was badly managed, and by 1818 had a 10:1 credit to reserve ratio. Also hurt by the Panic of 1819.
American System (Clay)
This was a plan created by Henry Clay that included higher tariffs to protect industries and create revenue for the government, preservation of the Bank of the US, development of system of internal improvements (roads, canals, etc.), and maintenance of high public land prices.
This included improvements to roads and canals by the government, that, according to the American System, would be financed by tariffs and land sale revenues.
National (Cumberland) Road
One of the first major improved highways in the United States to be built by the federal government, beginning in 1811. The final road stretched from Vandalia, Illinois to Cumberland, Maryland. Authorized by Thomas Jefferson.
Leader of the Whig party, and leading statesman during the Antebellum period. Had nationalistic views, and defended New England's shipping interests.
Martin Van Buren
8th president of the United States, democrat, president during the Panic of 1837 and was the first president to be born in the US (also the first president not of British decent- he was of Dutch). Served as Secretary of State, VP, and President.
Member of the Democratic-Republican party, served as Secretary of the Treasury and Secretary of War. Was a candidate for the Election of 1824, but was put out of the running because of a paralyzing stroke, still got 3rd in the election.
John C. Calhoun
Vice President for J.Q. Adams, and a leading politician from South Carolina. Republican, and leader of the War Hawks and wrote "The South Carolina Exposition and Protest" essay which was published with 8 resolutions denouncing the protective tariff as unfair/unconstitutional.
Federalist who was both a Representative and a Senator. He was a leader of the War Hawks, favoring war with Britain. Created the American System, supporting higher tariffs to generate revenue for the government.
Thomas Hart Benton
Democratic-Republican Senator from Missouri and a strong advocate for Westward expansion. Joined forces with Jackson at one point, and argued against the Bank of the United States.
1820- This was the compromise that added Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state. It rose because of the representational issues in Congress (3/5 & Great compromises). Maine became a state in 1820, Missouri in 1821.
Proposed by Rep. Tallmadge (NY) as an amendment to the Missouri Enabling Act. He proposed that slaves in Missouri would be free by the age of 25. It as passed in the House, but not the Senate.
This was the northern boundary of slave states for future expansion (created by the Missouri Compromise). It was made under the assumption by both the North and the South that the land north of this line was not suitable for cultivating/farming.
Judiciary Act of 1789
The Judiciary Act of 1789 was an act that established the federal court system in the United States. It was one of the first laws that the new Congress passed during the term of George Washington. The Constitution was rather vague about what the judicial powers should be exactly, only stating that the judicial branch should be composed of one Supreme Court and other inferior courts that Congress establishes. This act set the number of Supreme court justices at six, one chief justice and five associate justices. Additionally, this act created 13 judicial districts and established circuit and district courts. The Judiciary Act of 1789 also had a clause which gave the Supreme court the right to order a writ of mandamus, which would allow it to order another branch of government to do what it rules. This particular part of the Judiciary Act was declared unconstitutional in the 1803 case Marbury vs Madison, because chief Justice John Marshall stated that the Supreme court had no right to order and control another branch of government.
Election of 1824
Jackson would have won this election, but he didn't have the majority, so the vote went to the House, and through the "Corrupt Bargain" Adams won.
Tariff of 1824
It was a protective tariff that was created for the purpose of protecting American industry from cheaper British commodities. This tariff favored the North and West, but not the south. Southerners were very unhappy with it.
electoral votes constituted no majority between Crawford, Clay, Jackson, and JQ Adams in 1824 election.
Idea is that these guys are running in a regional race (outbreak of sectionalism) Henry Clay is the favorite son of the west. Candidates are supported largely by their home regions.
Clay told Western House member to vote for Adams, making Adams President, and resulted in Adams making Clay Secretary of State. Jackson supporters suspect of a "corrupt bargain"
The trading of favors in Congress where legislatures agree to vote on each other's bills.
Tariff of Abominations
Was a protective tariff protecting Northern manufacturing; the South didn't like because they didn't have industry and needed the trade with Britain.
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Writen by Calhoun; written in response of the Tariff of Abominations; repudated Jacksonians; theorized that states should nullify laws.
Started in Britain and then spread to America; led to more manufacturing in the North and the growth of industry in the U.S.
Brought the first machine, or rather, memorized the plan for the first machine, to America; his actions led to the growth of industry in America
This was a new system of manufacturing through the rise of factories (many textile). This system used domestic labor, like mill girls, who lived in boardinghouses under a very regimented schedule.
Inventor of the cotton gin (1793). Allowed them to give 50 times more cotton than by hand, and increased cotton production (and stimulated economy).
Led to a boom in slavery and economy in the South; successful because of the creation of the cotton gin by Whitney
Solution to traveling upstream. Designed by John Stevens and Robert Fulton. With it, a lot more freight was transported West (costs went down), and made New Orleans one of the World's greatest ports. Later, it became a luxurious type of transportation.
Irish Potato Famine
All the potatoes in Ireland went bad, so most of the Irish immigrated to America and started working in factories.
DeWitt Clinton and the Erie Canal
Biggest and most successful canal at that time; linked Albany and Buffalo through the Mohawk Valley. Project 1810-25
De jure vs. de facto discrimination
De jure is discrimination by law, and de facto is discrimination that isn't approved or disapproved by law, but exists
Roger B. Taney
After Marshall Court, ruled a decision in the case Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge
In 1785, Massachusetts legislature got Charles River Bridge Company to build a bridge and collect tolls. In 1828, the legislature established the Warren Bridge Company to build a free bridge nearby. The CRBC filed suit, claiming the legislature had defaulted on its initial contract. Court held that the state had not entered a contract that prohibited the construction of another bridge on the river at a later date, and that it was for the public good.
Alexis de. Toqueville
French political thinker and historian. He wrote the book "Democracy in America," on the democratic institutions in America, and their strengths and weaknesses.