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77 terms

Unit 3 Human Geo. Vocab

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Acculturation
The process through which a culture is modified by borrowing elements/traits or complexes from another group.
Animism
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Artifacts
The material manifestations of culture, including tools, housing, systems of land use, clothing, etc.
Assimilation
Process of less dominant cultures losing their culture to a more dominant culture
Baha'i-
A monotheistic religion founded in the 19th century as a development of Babism, emphasizing the essential oneness of humankind and of all religions and seeking world peace
Behaviors
The way in which one acts or conducts oneself
Beliefs
speaking two languages
Buddhism
a world religion or philosophy based on the teaching of the Buddha and holding that a state of enlightenment can be attained by suppressing worldly desire
Confucianism
A philosophy based on the ideas of Confucius that focuses on morality, family order, social harmony, and government
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Creole
a language that began as a pidgin language but was later adopted as the mother tongue by a people in a place of the mother tongue
Cultural diffusion
the spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Cultural ecology
the geographic study of human-environment relationships
Cultural geography
the study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places
Cultural hearths
Heartland, source area, innovation center, place of origin of a major culture
Cultural landscape
the visible imprint of human activity and culture on the landscape
Cultural transmission
the way a group of people or animals within a society or culture tend to learn and pass on new information
Culture complex
is the combination of several traits, which are characteristic to that particular group
Culture region
includes many different counties that have certain traits in common
Culture system
the interaction of different elements of culture
Culture trait
activities and behaviors that people repeatedly practice
Daoism
philosophical system developed by Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Dialect
local or regional characteristics of a language
Diasporas
the dispersion of the Jews outside Israel
Extinct Language
language without any native speakers
Folk culture
Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups
Folk life
The way of life of a rural or traditional community
Geographic region
a demarcated area of the Earth
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places
Hinduism
Created in India, one billon followers, heaven isn't always the ultimate goal in life. Third largest behind Christianity and Islam
Humanism
An outlook or system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters
Independent inventions
The creative innovation of new solutions to old and new problems
Indo-European language family
language family including he Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% if the world's population
Durkheim's sacred and profane
central characteristics of religion. Sacred-interests of the group, profane-interests of the individual
Ethnic Religion-
A religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of the particular location in which its adherents are concentrated
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Isogloss
a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Language
a set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols that are used for communication
Language families
group of languages with a shared but fairly distant origin
Language sub-family
divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent
Language franca
applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of a mixture of Italian, French, Greek, Spanish and even some Arabic; "common language": trade language
Linguistic geography
the study of the geographical distribution of linguistic features.
Mahayana
One of the two major traditions of Buddhism
Marxism
basis for the theory and practice of communism
Material culture
The physical manifestations of human activities; includes tools, campsites, art, and structures. The most durable aspects of culture
Migrant diffusion
when an innovation originates somewhere and enjoys strong-but brief-adoption, loses strength at origin by the time it reaches another area
Monotheistic religion
The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god
Multilingualism
Using many languages.
Non-material culture
ideas, knowledge and beliefs that influence people's behavior
Norms
A standard or pattern, esp. of social behavior, that is typical or expected of a group
Official language
in multilingual countries, the language selected, often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion; usually the language of the courts and governments
Pidgin
when parts of two or more languages are combined in a simplified structure and vocabulary
Popular culture
Entertainment spread by mass communications and enjoying wide appeal.
Protestants
separate from the Roman Catholic Church and follow the principles of the Reformation, including the Baptist, Presbyterian, and Lutheran churches
Regional identity
Identification with a specific geographic region of a nation
Religion Braches
is a large and fundamental division within a religion
Religion Denominations
a particular religious group, usually associated with differing Protestant belief systems
Religion Sects
small group that has broken away from an established denomination
Religion
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
Relocation diffusion
The spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.
Roman Catholics
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Shamanism
Form of a tribal religion that involved community acceptance of a shaman, a religious leader, healer, and worker of magic who, through special powers, can intercede with and interpret the spirit world.
Shiite
An adherent of the Shia branch of Islam
Sikhism
is a religion that began in sixteenth century in Northern India. The principal belief in Sikhism is faith in Vāhigurū.
Standard language
one that is published, widely distributed, and purposefully taught
Stimulus diffusion
transmitted from one culture to another
Sunni
One of the two main branches of Islam
Symbols
A thing that represents or stands for something else
Syncretism
The blending traits from two different cultures to form a new trait
Tantrayana
mixed form of Buddhism practiced in Tibet
Theraveda
The more conservative of the two major traditions of Buddhism
Time-distance decay
the longer and farther it has to go, the less likely it will get there
Toponymy
place name
Traditional religion
Special forms of ethnic religions distinguished by their small size, their unique identity with localized culture groups not yet fully absorbed into modern society, and their close ties to nature
Transculturation
cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
Universalizing religion
a religion that attempts to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location