46 terms

AP US2 chapt 29 30

william seward
Secretary of State who was responsible for purchasing Alaskan Territory from Russia. By purchasing Alaska, he expanded the territory of the country at a reasonable price.antislaveryite from New York, he stated that on the issue of slavery, there was a higher law than the Constitution
Napoleon III
Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, and elected emperor of France from 1852-1870, he invaded Mexico when the Mexican government couldn't repay loans from French bankers. He sent in an army and set up a new government under Maximillian. He refused Lincoln's request that France withdraw. After the Civil War, the U.S. sent an army to enforce the request and Napoleon withdrew.
occupied by napoleon
Alaska purchase 1867
Secretary of State William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 Million ("Seward's Folly")
new imperialism
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories. (p. 726)
international darwinism
Darwin's concept of the survival of the fittest was applied not only to competition in the business world but also to competition among nations. Therefore, in the international arena, the US had to demonstrate its strength by acquiring territories overseas, a sort of continuing of the manifest destiny
Josiah Strong, Our Country: ITs possible future and current crisis
author of Our Country, on Anglo-Saxon superiority; a popular American minister in the late 1800s who linked Anglo-Saxonism to Christian missionary ideas Our Country,In this book, Strong argued that the American country and people were superior because they were Anglo-Saxon.
Alfred Thayer mahan
American Naval officer and historian. He is most famous for his book "The Influence of Sea Power on History" which defined Naval strategy. His philosophies had a major influence on the Navies of many nations resulting in a igniting of naval races between countries.
Pan-American Conference 1889
were meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade and other issues. They were first introduced by James G. Blaine of Maine in order to establish closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors, specifically Latin America. Blaine hoped that ties between the USA and its southern counterparts would open Latin American markets to U.S. trade.
James Blaine
published his "Big Sister" policy which aimed to rally the Latin American nations behind America's leadership and to open Latin American markets to American traders served as secretary of state in two administrations in the 1880's, led early efforts to expand american influence in latin america.
Richard Olney
Began as a leading corporate lawyer who noted that the Interstate Commerce Act could be used by the railroads. He became Attorney General and helped to stop the Pullman Strike. He later became the Secretary of State under President Cleveland. He declared to the British that by trying to dominate Venezuela they were violating the Monroe Doctrine. U.S. mediated the Venezuelan boundary dispute.
venezuela boundary dispute
Dispute between Great Britain and Venezuela over the boundary between Venezuela and British Guiana; British had ignored American demands to arbitrate the matter with Sec. of State Olney saying that Britain was violating the Monroe Doctrine; president Cleveland supported Venezuela and decided to determine the boundary line and if Britain resisted this, the U.S. could declare war to enforce it; Britain eventually agreed to arbitration
extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
valeriano weyler
He was a Spanish General referred to as "Butcher" Weyler. He undertook to crush the Cuban rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps, where they could not give assistance to the armed insurrectionists. The civilians died in deadly pestholes. "Butcher" was removed in 1897. General sent by Spain to stop Cuban revolt, referred to as the "Butcher" because of harsh tactics "concentration camps, shooting civilian, ect.)
yellow journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
Spanish-American War
1898 - America wanted Spain to peacefully resolve the Cuaban's fight for independence - the start of the war was due in large part to yellow journalism War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba's independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
De Lome letter
Written by the Spanish minister in Washington, Dupuy de Lôme, it was stolen from the mail and delivered to Hearst. He had called McKinley weak and bitter. It was played up by the yellow journalists.
teller ammendment
Created in 1898 essentially saying that the us would fight to liberate then free cuba, not colonize to control them.
SA war fought here
George Dewey
a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines
Theodore Roosevelt
(WMc) Assistant Secretary of Navy, Rough Rider (helped him gain fame after San Juan Hill), instructed Commodore Dewey to attack Philippines 26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
The queen of Hawaii in 1887 who disliked foreigners entering her country. She didn't want to go to war with America because she knew her people would get massacred. the Hawaiian Queen who tried to eliminate white control in the Hawaiian government. The white population revolted and seized power. Under McKinley Hawaii was annexed
puerto rico, guam
annexed to the US
phillipine annexation
was ratified, along with the Treaty of Paris, by an extremely close vote if 57 to 27
emilio aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901. (p. 743) Filipino General - helped US take Philipines during Spanish-American war - helped Philippines gain freedom from US
Anti-Imperialist League
group of influential americans who believed the united states should not deny other people the right to govern themselves , objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900 was established in the United States on June 15, 1898 to battle the American annexation of the Philippines, officially called insular areas
insular cases
These were court cases dealing with islands/countries that had been recently annexed and demanded the rights of a citizen. These Supreme Court cases decided that the Constitution did not always follow the flag, thus denying the rights of a citizen to Puerto Ricans and Filipinos.
Platt ammendment 1901
allowed the U.S. to intervene in Cuba and gave the U.S. control of the naval base at Guantanamo Bay an addition to the 1900 Cuban Constitution by the American gov't. that gave the U. S. the right to establish naval bases in Cuba and to intervene in cuban affairs when necessary , cuba could not make treaties with foreign power limiting independence and not borrow excessive amounts of money, allowed us to establish naval base at guantanamo bay
John Hay
secretary of state in the McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt administrations; he was the author of the Open Door Notes, which attempted to protect American interests in China in the early 20th century by asking European countries to pledge equal trading rights in China and the protection of its territory from foreign annexation.
spheres of influence
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China) section of a country where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
an irrational fear of foreigners or strangers
boxer rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
big stick policy
Roosevelt's philosophy - In international affairs, ask first but bring along a big army to help convince them. Threaten to use force, act as international policemen; used by T.R. to improve world peace, "Speak softly and carry a big stick." Said that the "big stick" (aka the US army/navy) could be used to keep other countries in line and to make sure that the countries of Latin America behaved themselves
Hay Pauncefote treaty
permission granted by Panama for the US to dig a canal ; permitted by the British in order to make friends with US in hope of future support against Germany ; negociated under Roosevelt ; greatly facilitated trade
panama canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000 (746) a ship canal 40 miles long across the Isthmus of Panama built by the United States (1904-1914)
George Goethals
Army engineer who oversaw completion of Panama Canal, overcame many obstacles to finish project ahead of schedule. First governor of canal zone
william gorgas
Army physician who helped eradicate Yellow Fever and malaria from Panama to work on Panama canal could proceed
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
russo japanese war
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
treaty of portsmouth1905
(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
gentlemen's agreement
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
great white fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
root takahira agreement
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
algeciras conference 1906
(TR) alliance (germany, austria, and italy),1906- settled the First Moroccan Crisis- started with Germany wanting an international conference on the Moroccan question of who gets what- Germany left with nothing and was further isolated- result of conference was that Britain, France, Russia, and the US began to see Germany as a potential threat that might seek to dominate all Europe- Germany began to see sinister plots to "encircle" Germany and prevent their development as a world power
rough rider