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standards established by society to tell its members what types of behavior are typical or expected
the idea that empathy motivates people to reduce other people's distress, as by helping or comforting
empathy-specific reward hypothesis
the idea that empathy triggers the need for social reward that can be gained by helping
empathy-specific punishment hypothesis
the idea that empathy triggers the fear of social punishment that can be avoided by helping
negative state relief hypothesis
the idea that people help others in order to relieve their own distress
belief in a just world
the assumption that life is essentially fair, that people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get
the finding that people are less likely to offer help when they are in a group than when they are alone
5 steps to helping
notice something is happening; interpret event as emergency; take responsibility for providing help; decide how to help; help
looking to others for cues about how to behave, while they are looking to you; collective misinterpretation
diffusion of responsibility
the reduction in feeling responsible that occurs when others are present
failure to help in front of others for fear of feeling like a fool if one's offer of help is rejected
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