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Pope Gregory VII
greatest of the reforming popes, established that papacy has absolute power in the church and that the church is infallible
Forcing people to confess that they had misgivings about the pope, even tortured people, done by Dominican order
Otto 1/Otto the Great
had churchmen as his vassals, crossed the Alps into Italy to defeat Lombards, crowned emperor of Holy Roman Empire
also called Barbarossa, restores Holy Roman Empire, strengthened through Italian alliance, considered the antichrist b/c he didn't persecute Jews, Muslims, gypsies
heir to German and Sicilian throne, educated, patron to artist/scholars, his death marks decline of Holy Roman Empire
Alfred the Great
Anglo-saxon, established a military class, fortifications along the coast, english navy, schools, shires
William the Conqueror of Normandy
French, Battle of Hastings in AD 1066, brought feudalism, tenants-in-chief, domesday book
Richard I/the lion-hearted
goes on kings crusade, gets kidnapped by king of Austria on the way back, loved by people
hated by people and weak, more land in France belonged to English kings than French kings, gets excommunicated by pope, Magna Carta
most gifted, attempted to conquer all of Britain, becomes the Prince of Wales, forms Parliament
French, Capetian house, no wars about succession, expansion through conquest/marriage, centralized government, allied w/ church
permanent royal court in Paris, issues ordinances without consulting vassals, gives dignity to royal office
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