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lay investiture

kings/nobles decide that its their right to appoint church officials


buying/selling of church artifacts and church offices


order of monks that separate themselves to live away from church corruption

Bernard of Clairvaux

most famous Cistercian reformer

college of cardinals

below the pope, the most important churchmen, they choose the next pope

Pope Gregory VII

greatest of the reforming popes, established that papacy has absolute power in the church and that the church is infallible

Henry IV

wanted to pick his own church officials, didn't listen to the pope

Concordant of Worms

decides that only the church can appoint church officials



mendicant orders

begging friars expect people to feed them

Franciscan order

established by Francis of Assisi

Dominican order

established by Dominic, closely associated with the Inquisition

Pope Innocent III

height of papal power

papal weapons

excommunication, interdict, inquisition


not being allowed to take the sacraments


Forcing people to confess that they had misgivings about the pope, even tortured people, done by Dominican order


tribal leader to protect the tribe


territory a duke reigns over

Henry the Fowler/Henry I

Saxon House, expansion against Slavs/Magyars

Otto 1/Otto the Great

had churchmen as his vassals, crossed the Alps into Italy to defeat Lombards, crowned emperor of Holy Roman Empire

internal issues

German interference in Italy, neglect of Germany makes dukes more powerful

pope issues

emperor interfering in papal affairs, Henry IV vs. Gregory VII

nobles issues

salian house established by Henry IV, civil wars

house of hohenstaufens

established by Frederick I

Frederick I

also called Barbarossa, restores Holy Roman Empire, strengthened through Italian alliance, considered the antichrist b/c he didn't persecute Jews, Muslims, gypsies

Frederick II

heir to German and Sicilian throne, educated, patron to artist/scholars, his death marks decline of Holy Roman Empire

Alfred the Great

Anglo-saxon, established a military class, fortifications along the coast, english navy, schools, shires

anglo-saxon chronicle

history of england


counties, where we get the word sherieff from


Danish ruler, united all of England

Edward the Confessor

very religious, died without a direct heir

William the Conqueror of Normandy

French, Battle of Hastings in AD 1066, brought feudalism, tenants-in-chief, domesday book

Domesday book

census of people, survey of possessions

Henry II

Plantagenet house

circuit courts

judges go to different towns and stay for a week then come back in about 6 months


when someone is accused of a crime

common law

idea of justice/fairness, unifies England

Thomas a Becket

archbishop of Canterbury (highest church office in England)

Richard I/the lion-hearted

goes on kings crusade, gets kidnapped by king of Austria on the way back, loved by people

John I

hated by people and weak, more land in France belonged to English kings than French kings, gets excommunicated by pope, Magna Carta

Magna Carta

"great charter" John I forced to sign it, limits king's power AD 1215

Edward I

most gifted, attempted to conquer all of Britain, becomes the Prince of Wales, forms Parliament

Parliament divisions

House of Commons and House of Lords, they make laws

power of the purse

power to control taxation

Hugh Capet

French, Capetian house, no wars about succession, expansion through conquest/marriage, centralized government, allied w/ church

Philip II/Augustus

real founder of France, reclaimed land from King John I


person who keeps courtroom under control

Louis IX

permanent royal court in Paris, issues ordinances without consulting vassals, gives dignity to royal office

Philip IV

summoned Estates-General for "advice"

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