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153 terms

Nutrition Exam 4

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Which of the following individuals would most likely NOT benefit from dietary supplementation?
people who eat a balanced diet
Currently insulin therapy is the ONLY treatment for type 1 diabetes.
T
Which of the following is NOT a recommendation to avoid allergies in children?
If a child has a negative reaction to a food, never offer it to that child again.
Which of the following foods would be the BEST source of dietary calcium for a young toddler?
whole milk
The cartilage that is located at the end of long bones that closes when growth ceases is called the ________ plate.
epiphyseal
Maria typically eats 2000 kcals per day. How many calories per day should she strive to consume if she wanted to safely lose one pound per week?
1,500 kcals
The period of life when secondary sex characteristics develop and people are able to reproduce is called ________.
puberty
Primary or essential hypertension, accounting for approximately 45-55% of people, is hereditary.
T
Which of the following BEST explains why adolescents are more vulnerable to the unrealistic media images of the "perfect body" than are adults?
Adolescents are developing their personal identity.
If your sibling has or has had an eating disorder, it places you at a higher risk of developing an eating disorder.
T
What is the leading cause of death in the United States?
heart disease
An infant born before 38 weeks gestation is said to be ________.
preterm
A(n) ________ is any substance that causes a birth defect in the developing fetus.
teratogen
Studies have shown that exposure of the fetus to famine in the first trimester of pregnancy resulted in a high risk of the development of ________ in adulthood.
metabolic syndrome
Existing evidence suggests that only 5% of obese people are successful at long-term weight loss.
F
Which of the following would NOT be good advice to give to a parent regarding the introduction of solids to their six-month-old infant?
Add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods.
Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________.
prolactin
Research suggests that there are lifelong consequences to any type of nutrient imbalance during pregnancy.
T
Diabetes is a condition in which the body does NOT regulate ________ properly.
glucose
According to the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, dietary supplements are categorized as drugs.
F
Multivitamin/mineral supplements should never be recommended for preschoolers.
F
To avoid dehydration, toddlers should be offered fruit juice at every meal.
F
Preliminary research studies suggest that a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet can improve metabolic measures of health in humans and, therefore, may be able to extend the human life span.
T
Which of the following is NOT a benefit of a Calorie Restricted (CR) diet?
Calorie Restriction results in decreased fat mass and increased lean body mass.
Which of the following BEST describes why the body reduces nonvital body functions in untreated anorexia nervosa?
The body needs to conserve energy.
An optimal systolic blood pressure reading would be
less than 120
The major protein found in breast milk is ________.
lactalbumin
Premilk, also known as ________, is rich in immune factors and protein.
colostrum
Surgery is considered the last resort for morbidly obese people.
T
Generally, surgery to treat obesity is not recommended unless an individual's BMI is ________
35 kg/m2 .
What are dental caries?
What are dental caries?
cavities
For proper growth and development, toddlers should consume ________ percent of their total daily energy intake as fat.
30-40
Insulin therapy can be administered by an oral medication or by injection.
F
The FDA must prove a supplement is unsafe before it can be removed from the market.
T
High blood levels of HDL-cholesterol is associated with a low risk for coronary artery disease.
T
The ________ changes of puberty are largely responsible for the acne flare-ups that plague many adolescents.
hormonal
Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?
the manufacturer of the supplement
The negative impact of fetal exposure to malnutrition is worsened if followed by low nutrient intakes shortly after birth.
F
Sexual abuse in childhood increases the risk of developing an eating disorder.
T
Metabolic effects of CR reported in several human studies include all of the following EXCEPT ________.
increased energy expenditure
Iron-deficiency anemia is uncommon in young children.
F
Parents should force their children to eat healthy foods to avoid obesity.
F
A Calorie Restricted diet (CR) is defined as a diet containing 1000 or fewer calories per day.
F
Which of the following is NOT a risk in the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy?
osteoporosis
Insulin is synthesized and secreted by the
pancreas
The primary cause of gastroesophageal reflux and constipation during pregnancy is
relaxation of the smooth muscles.
The average weight and height for a healthy newborn in the United States is ________ pounds and 18-22 inches long.
7 1/2
The most common nutrient deficiency in young children is caused by inadequate ________ consumption.
iron
All of the following are characteristic of adolescent eating habits EXCEPT
regular consumption of three meals per day.
The fastest growing age subgroup in the United States today is
85-year-olds.
Gastric bypass surgery reduces food intake by ________
attaching the lower part of the small intestine to the stomach.
Unless a prescribed by a qualified practitioner, taking a single-nutrient supplement is not recommended because it ________
may quickly lead to a nutrient toxicity.
Eating disorders do not occur in adolescent boys.
F
Due to the additional losses via the menstrual cycle, adolescent girls require more iron than do adolescent boys.
T
Minimizing your intake of unsaturated fatty acids as much as possible will lower your risk of heart disease.
F
An evaluation of the impact of a Calorie Restricted diet on heath indicates only the calorie level of the diet and NOT the nutrient content that is critical to prolong life.
F
You would be diagnosed with true hypertension if your systolic blood pressure was greater than or equal to 140 mm Hg and your diastolic blood pressure was ________
greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg.
All of the following describe characteristics of the female athlete triad EXCEPT
diabetes mellitus.
The USDA recommends that pregnant women avoid all of the following foods EXCEPT
honey
During the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by 350 to ________ kilocalories per day.
450
Recommended treatment for type 2 diabetes includes
selecting carbohydrates that are rich in fiber.
Inconsolable crying for hours at a time is a characteristic of ________.
colic
Which of the following is FALSE concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather- and war-related famines in Africa?
Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in adults.
Research has clearly shown that the media's portrayal of body image is a direct cause of eating disorders.
F
Diabetes is more common in Caucasians than in other ethnic groups.
F
Obesity is NOT associated with an increased risk of
type-1 diabetes
Hypertension contributes to both coronary heart disease and stroke.
T
In the U.S., every school lunch must provide ________ of the RDA for protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, calcium, and energy. (Be sure to spell out your answer.)
1/3
Which of the following correctly describes "milk displacement"?
the selection of low-nutrient beverages (e.g., soda) in place of milk
Overconsumption of milk by infants and children can limit iron intake and lead to milk ________.
amenia
The ideal nutritional strategy for optimizing health is to ________
eat a healthful diet containing a variety of whole foods.
Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________
third trimester
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?
The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures.
Although considered an epidemic among U.S. adults, obesity rates in school-aged children have remained constant since the 1970s.
F
Limiting sugary sweets in children's diets is important only once their permanent teeth have erupted.
F
Research has shown that there is no association between fetal exposure to famine and future risk of chronic disease.
F
What lifestyle changes can a person take to improve his or her blood lipid profile?
lower intake of saturated fat and trans fat
Individuals suffering from binge-eating disorder and night-eating syndrome are often overweight.
T
The ________ is a pregnancy-specific organ that is responsible for delivering nutrients and oxygen to the fetus and removing waste products.
placenta
The sticky "first stool" excreted by the newborn infant is called ________.
meconium
It is estimated that ________ percent of adults in the United States have the metabolic syndrome.
25
Maria is a 3-year-old toddler and weighs 34 pounds. How many grams of protein should she consume each day?
13
Adolescent food patterns are strongly influenced by all of these EXCEPT
parents
Most of the members of the Caloric Restriction Society and the CRONies are males.
T
To avoid ________ contamination during pregnancy, fish consumption should not exceed 12 oz. a week.
mercury
Which of the following is NOT a maternal benefit of breastfeeding?
shortens the intervals between pregnancies
Dietary supplements need approval from the FDA before they are marketed.
F
In today's society, prejudice toward overweight people still seems to be widely practiced and acceptable.
T
The fetal adaptation theory indicates that a fetus exposed to starvation or malnutrition goes into a survival mode. Which of the following is NOT a fetal physiological response in this situation?
The size and function of body organs, such as liver or kidneys, does not change.
The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing among children and adolescents.
T
Hypertension is often a sign of underlying atherosclerosis.
T
Due to oxidative stress, older adults need to increase their consumption of both vitamin C and vitamin E.
F
Snacking between meals is developmentally and nutritionally appropriate for toddlers.
T
Snacking between meals is developmentally and nutritionally appropriate for toddlers.
4 months
The electrolyte imbalances that are often seen with eating disorders can result in
irregular heartbeat and heart failure.
Approximately ________ percent of children who are obese maintain their higher weight as adults.
70
Maintaining an energy-restricted diet that is high in nutrients requires significant planning and preparation of most of your own meals.
T
The neural tube will differentiate into the fetus's ________ and spinal cord.
brain
Good sources of the fatty acid ________ include fatty fish such as anchovies, mackerel, salmon, and sardines. (Be sure to write your answer as an abbreviation in all capital letters.)
DHA
Which of the following conditions is NOT associated with untreated diabetes?
osteoporosis
A nonspecific marker of inflammation associated with cardiovascular disease is ________
C-reactive protein (CRP)
The majority of obese children will become healthy-weight adults.
F
Obsessive-compulsive, perfectionist, socially inhibited, compliant, and emotionally restrained describe personality traits of ________
anorexia nervosa.
The key macronutrient for the development of the nervous system during the toddler and preschool years is ________.
fat
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding vitamin B12 during pregnancy?
The RDA for vitamin B12 doubles during pregnancy.
Which of the following hormones is referred to as the "let down" hormone?
oxytocin
Which of the following BEST describes the "Milk Matters" campaign?
government campaign to encourage teens to consume more milk and dairy foods
Peak bone mass is typically achieved in ________
late teens and early twenties.
If a toddler is overweight, a practical approach would be to place him or her on a low-fat diet.
F
Female athletes who experience amenorrhea are at risk for developing osteoporosis.
T
The key to a successful Calorie Restricted diet is to
consume a low calorie, high nutrient-dense diet.
Inadequate intakes of ________ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus.
folate
Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the ________
mother's weight before becoming pregnant.
The practice of drinking soft drinks and juices instead of milk is called the milk- ________ factor.
displacement
Adiposity rebound occurs between the ages of 5 and ________ years
7
The regulation of dietary supplements is just as rigorous as the regulation of drugs.
F
Which of the following birth defects has NOT been linked to maternal obesity?
cancer
The growth spurt starts earlier in boys than in girls.
F
A fatal neural tube defect in which brain tissue is partially or fully absent is called ________.
anencephaly
Which of the following will NOT help establish healthful eating habits in toddlers?
Use food as a reward for healthful behaviors.
The leading cause of death among high-school youths is ________.
automobile accidents
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) currently recommend a reduction in dietary sodium intake to less than _______ mg per day.
2,400
The higher the body mass index is in childhood the greater the risk of developing insulin resistance in adulthood
T
normal-weight woman should gain 25 to ___ lbs during pregnancy
35
Ramon weighs 8 lbs at birth, how much should he way at 1 yrs of age?
24 lbs
The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the sperm is ___
conception
Girls gain more body fat than boys do
T
All of the following are associated w/ type 1 diabeties except
obesity
Whats the best known treatment for eating disorder?
team-management approach
More women die from anorexia than bulimia
T
During first 6 months lactation, daily caloric needs of mother increase by ___ calories
330
Fruit juice intake should be limited to ___ ouces per day (AAP) for kids 1-6 yrs old
6
Severe tooth decay...nursing bottle____
syndrome
Minimun amount of activity daily
30 min per day, 5 days a week
Which is NOT associated with type 2 diabetes
autoimmune disease
Obesity in children, defined as BMI at ___ percentile?
95th
What nutrient is added to municipal water supplies to promote healthy teeth formation?
fluoride
Which isn't a risk factor for metabolic syndrome?
low triglyceride levels
Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of ___ in adult offspring
hypertension
Which isn't appropriate weight control?
decrease calorie intale by 1000 cal per day
The absorption of vitamin__ increases in older adults
A
Reduced fat milk shouldn't be given to kids under the age of ___
2
Production of VLDL is decreased by
exercise
Which isn't a reason infants are at higher risk of dehydration?
infants have kidneys that produce highly concentrated urine
In which trimester is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens
first trimester
The inner portion of the zygote that implants lining...
blastocyst
Consuming ___ supplements can cause gastro upset
gingko
All of these will help you buy good products execpt
purchasing "natural" labeled items
In elderly a __ deficiency can lead to decreased sense of smell and taste
zinc
Which enhances absorbtion of iron?
vitamin C
Substance that cushions and protects developing fetus___ fluid
amniotic
Abnormal craving for nonfood items, such as clay and ice chips is called ___
pica