Coombs - APES Chapter 13

Golden Rice
gene from daffodil added to allow for beta carotene production and increased vitamin A nutrition for people in developing countries
Food Security
every person in a given area has access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy life
diet is deficient in protein, calories or other key nutrients
needed in large amounts to remain healthy; ex: protein, carbohydrates, fats/lipids
needed in smaller amounts to remain healthy; ex: vitamins and minerals
Chronic Undernutrition / Hunger
not being able to grow or buy enough food to meet ones basic energy needs
widespread food shortage accompanied by an increase in the death rate
food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes body fat to accumulate
amount of a crop or food item that is harvested per unit area; ex: how many tons of fish are harvested per hectare; how many bushels of corn are harvested per hectare
Industrialized Agriculture / High Input Agriculture
uses large amounts of fossil fuel energy, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops (monocultures) and livestock for sale/profit
Plantation Agriculture
type of industrialized agriculture common in tropical developing countries where cash crops are grown on large monoculture plantations
Cash Crops
typically grown on plantation style farms in tropical developing countries; ex: bananas, coffee, cocoa, sugarcane, soybeans, peanuts, vegetables
Feedlots / Animal Factories
common in industrialized agriculture when raising livestock; high density areas of animals raised while using high amounts of energy and water and creating dense areas of animal waste
industrialized farming in the U.S.; giant multinational corporations control the growing, processing, distribution, and sale of food in the U.S. and in the global marketplace; ex: Monsanto, Tyson
Traditional Subsistence Agriculture
uses moslty human and animal labor to produce only enough food for a farm family
Traditional Intensive Agriculture
increased inputs in labor, fertilizer, water to obtain higher yields and produce enough extra food to sell for profit
growing several crops on the same plot of land simultaneously
Polyvarietal Cultivation
type of interplanting; planting a plot with several genetic varieties of the same crop
type of interplanting; two or more different crops are grown at same time on same plot
Agroforestry / Alley Cropping
type of interplanting; crops and trees or shrubs are grown together
type of interplanting; many different plants are grown together
one type of crop (typically same genetic variety) grown on large expanses of land
A-Horizon of soil profile; most important horizon of soil for crop production; easily eroded away by overcultivation
Soil Erosion
movement of soil components (especially surface litter and topsoil) by wind or water
Sheet Erosion
surface water or wind peel off thin sheets or layers of soil
Rill Erosion
fast-moving little rivulets of surface water make small channels in the soil
Gully Erosion
rivulets of fast-moving water join together and cut wider deeper ditches or gullies
1985 Food Security Act
also called "Farm Act"; farmers receive a subsidy for taking highly erodible land out of production and planting it with soil saving grass or trees for 10-15 years
productive potential of drylands falls by 10% due to natural climate change or overcultivation of the soils and degradation of topsoil
soil becomes more salty due to irrigation; irrigation water contains trace minerals and salts that are left behind daily as water evaporates and over time soil becomes salty
happens due to overirrigation in an attempt to leach salts from soil; causes soil to be saturated with water and water table levels may actually rise
Soil Conservation
any measure aimed at using soil in a more sustainable way so that the topsoil will not be eroded or degraded
Conservation-Tillage Farming
type of soil conservation and BMP; also called no-till farming; soil is sliced open and new crop is planted without tilling and loosening the soil
growing food on steep slopes by creating flat terraced areas across the slope of the land
Contour Farming
plowing and planting crops in rows going across the slope of the land
Strip Cropping
alternating strips of a row crop like corn or cotton with another crop that covers the ground like a grass or grass-legume mixture
Cover Crops
planting a crop to remain on soil throughout the growing season (even during winter) to hold soil in place
Windbreaks / Shelterbelts
trees planted around crops to reduce wind and soil erosion
Organic Fertilizer
anything that supplements the soils nutrients and comes from natural plant or animal products
Commercial Inorganic Fertilizer
man-made substances comprised of various minerals and nutrients used to supplement the soil
Animal Manure
dung and urine of various animals and livestock used to supplement soil
Green Manure
freshly cut or growing green vegetation plowed into soil
produced when microorganisms in soil break down organic material like leaves, food waste, paper and wood in presence of oxygen
Crop Rotation
farmers plant nutrient depleting crops one year (like corn) and then alternate with by planting legumes the next year so that they can fix nitrogen and add nitrogen back to the soil
Green Revolution
has allowed increase in yields since 1950's mainly due to high-yield monocultures, increased use of fertilizers, irrigation and pesticides
Second Green Revolution
mainly aimed at developing countries with tropical climates; fast growing dwarf varieties of rice developed to be used in places like India and China
world's genetic variety of animals and plants
Cross Breeding
using artificial selection to mix varieties of plants and/or animals to develop new varieties of crops and livestock with beneficial traits
Genetically Modified Food (GMF)
splicing gene from one species and inserting it into another species to improve the quality of a food crop or food item
Gene Revolution
a third green revolution where focus is on genetic engineering of foods and development of GMF's to increase yield or crop productivity
concentrations of particular aquatic species suitable for commercial harvesting in a given ocean or inland body of water
raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages instead of going out to gather them
Fish Farming
cultivating fish in a controlled environment and harvesting when they reach a desired size
Fish Ranching
holding anadromous species, (like salmon) that live part of life in freshwater and part of life in saltwater, in captivity for first years of life; fish are released and then harvested when they come back to spawn
any unwanted organism that does ecomomic damage
any chemical that can kill unwanted organisms that are doing economic damage
type of pesticide that kills insects
type of pesticide that kills plants
type of pesticide that kills fungi
type of pesticide that kills rodents like mice and rats
Broad-Spectrum Agents
pesticides that are not selective and kill a wide range of organisms - often kill non-targeted organisms
Selective / Narrow-Spectrum Agents
pesticides that kill a specific pest or small number of specific pests
how long a chemical or pesticide remains in the environment before being broken down into less harmful substances or chemicals; ex: DDT had a high persistence which allowed it to bioaccumulate and then biomagnify up the food chain and cause the decline of many predatory bird species like the bald eagle
U.S. Deparment of Agriculture
Food and Drug Adminisration
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act; law that requires pesticides be tested and approved to determine their environmental and human health risks; only 10% of pesticides have gone through this testing/approval process
Food Quality Protection Act
requires the EPA to reduce the allowed levels of pesticide residues on food by a factor of 10 when there is inadequate information on the potentially harmful effects on children
Biological Pest Control
control of pest populations by natural predators, parasites, or disease-causing bacteria and viruses (pathogens)
Integrated Pest Management; using a combination of various pest control strategies to reduce a pest population; pesticides can be used but are usually used as a last resort and small doses of selective/narrow-spectrum agents
100 Percent Organic
food must be produced without pesticides, synthetic fertilizers, antibiotics, growth hormones, genetic modification
at least 95% of the ingredients must be organic and 100% natural
Organic Meat
animals raised on organic feed, no steroids or growth hormones given, antibiotics only given to treat disease, must have access to outdoors