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The Reformers and the word of God
Terms in this set (106)
16th Century to the reformation: What does the reformation of theology focus on?
focuses on the primary authority of the word of God, of scripture.
16th century reformation: what does "Sola Scriptura" mean?
scripture alone. there was a fresh interest in NT Christianity
16th century reformation: What did Luther do that is very well known during this reformation?
nailed the 95 theses on the castle door of the Catholic Church in Wittenberg.
16th century reformation: What did the theology of reformer stress?
stressed theology of justification and theology of the word.
16th century reformation: The theology of reformers stressed theology of justification. what is the theology of justification?
theology of justification- being saved through faith and grace alone not by works.
16th century reformation: what was the notion of scripture alone during this reformation?
Scripture alone served to make scripture the source of authority not the pope. wanted scripture to be higher than the pope.
How did the protestant reformation, and the interest in the word of God come about? #1 Original languages. Explain
During this Renaissance, there was rediscovery of Greek and Roman Doctrines. started having tools to learn original languages. For the Church there was a desire to read the NT in the original Greek rather than in Latin.
How did the protestant reformation, and the interest in the word of God come about? #2 Renaissance Humanist. what is a humanist
Humanist valued humans.
Who was a Christian Humanist?
Erasmus was a Christian Humanist.
What are Christian humanist?
they placed priority on scripture and classical languages of scripture (Hebrew and Greek). Going back to the original languages helped them to rediscover scripture.
What did the Humanist movement of the Renaissance make available?
printed text of scripture in its original languages.
What is Johannes Gutenberg known for?
the printing press. no one had their own asses to God's word until this printing press.
How did the protestant reformation and the interest in the word of God come about? #3 Council of Trent. What did they oppose?
they opposed the substitution and reaffirmed the Latin text an language in worship.
Why was the Council of Trent so against putting the Bible in the original common languages, and instead keeping it in Latin?
They feared doctrinal adulteration. It is a lot easier when it was just one translation because it controlled the interpretations. now with translations for the common people then there are many different translations.
Why was the Council of Trent fearful of doctrinal adulteration?
variety of interpretation rather than controlled interpretation.
What did the Council of Trent claim about the Latin in the vulgate?
The Latin was meant to keep unity and have common translation of scripture.
What kind of Monk was Martin Luther?
Was a German Augustinian Monk.
What movement did Martin Luther lead?
the Protestantism movement.
Martin Luther. What did the Protestantism movement do?
revived the religious consciousness in Europe.
What was Martin Luther's concern?
His concern was to reform the church. He wanted to strip all of the alien philosophical methodology.
When did Martin Luther have a spiritual awakening?
What was Martin Luther's profession?
a teacher in Wittenberg.
What did Martin Luther teach? an example?
the scriptures. Roman series of lectures is an example.
Topics from Martin Luther's lectures on Romans: Luther and the Word of God- When Luther speaks of the word of God, what is he referring to?
to the proclamation of Christ and the gospel. He understood Christ as the word.
Luther's Roman lectures: Luther and the Word of God- what did Luther think the final authority was?
Ultimately, in the gospel and Jesus Christ. Not in Christian faith and practice, church, or the scripture. Scripture was prior over pope and the Church in Luther's mind.
Luther's Roman Lectures: The Word and the Fool- What do self-righteousness sinners do when reading the scriptures?
look into the word, resist it. They are proud and do not want to admit their sinfulness.
Luther's Roman Lectures: The Word and the Fool- What does Luther say is true foolishness?
not listening to the word.
Luther's Roman lectures: The Word and the Fool- What does Luther claim about prideful people and humble people reading the word?
Prideful people- cannot even hear the word.
humble- are the only ones that can hear and see the word.
Luther's Roman lectures: The word and the fool- according to Luther, how do you read the scriptures in a humble way?
Being aware that we are sinners. allowing God to break through by Grace.
Luther's Roman lectures: The word and the hearing of the word- what happens when the word invades someone's life?
it comes up against our way of thinking.
it makes you unhappy with yourself, you are not content with yourself.
Luther's roman lectures: The word and the hearing of the word- what does Luther think is the clearest sign that the word of God is not working in you?
if you are self-content, fine with who you are.
Luther's roman lectures: The word and Philosophy (scholasticism)- What does Luther point out in Romans 8:19 about Paul's interpretation of creation?
Paul's interpretation of creation is in contrast with philosophical.
Luther's roman lectures: The word and philosophy (scholasticism)- What does creation itself need?
Luther's roman lectures: The word and philosophy (scholasticism)- what does philosophy deal with in creation?
philosophy deals with the mechanics of creation, rather than its goal.
Luther's roman lectures: The word and philosophy (scholasticism)- Christian theology focuses on the goal of theology. what is the goal of theology?
redemption. in terms of seeing creation in need of redemption.
Luther's roman lectures: the word and philosophy (scholasticism)- For Paul (in the book of Romans) what is the focus in creation?
focus for Paul is God's redeeming work. This redemption only comes through Christ and his work.
Luther's roman lectures: the word and philosophy (scholasticism)- How does Luther see philosophy?
the study of vanity.
Luther's roman lectures: The word and philosophy (scholasticism)- what can philosophy help us according to Luther?
These philosophy skills can help us speak with those who are trained in these studies of philosophical, and lead them to the truth of scripture.
Luther's Roman lectures: The word and philosophy (scholasticism)- What does Luther think our focus needs to be on?
Christ, his crucifixion and the cross
Luther's context: What was the church focus on?
philosophical theology, reason over revelation, rational justification of religious belief.
Luther's context: What two themes is Scholasticism dominated by?
The need to systematize Christian theology.
The need to demonstrate the inherit rationality of Christian faith.
Zwingli introduction: What was Zwingli?
Roman Catholic Priest, breaks from the Catholic church and becomes a Switzerland reformer. Then he becomes a pastor in Zurich.
Zwingli Introduction: How did Zwingli start the swiz. reformation?
through his NT lectures in 1519.
Zwingli introduction: In his NT lectures, that started the swiz. reformation, what various abuses and teachings did he attach?
Purgatory and the sacrifice of the mass (Christ is being crucified repeatedly).
Zwingli introduction: How did he view God's word?
he is all about scripture alone. the word of God played a high role in theology for Zwingli.
Zwingli introduction: How did he use the word of God?
He used the word of God in his preaching week to week. Also used biblical arguments against other reformers and Catholics (his opponents)
Zwingli's writing, The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God: how does Zwingli describe the certainty of God's word?
the word will do what it says. What God says will always take place as and when He wills. What God speaks will be accomplished.
Zwingli's writing, The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God: How does Zwingli describe the clarity of God's word?
The word of God is essentially clear. you are able to understand the word because God enlightens your mind and with the word comes understanding through the Holy Spirit.
Zwingli's writing, The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God: What is the Word's best interpreter?
The word is the words best interpreter. The Holy Spirit will help you grasp its meaning.
Zwingli's writing, The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God: What is his main thesis when it comes to the nature of clarity?
The word is in no need of interpreters because the true interpreter is the Father of Jesus Christ, not popes and priests. God will reveal himself by his own spirit, which makes the word of God clear.
Zwingli's writing, The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God: Why does Zwingli think people do not see the scripture clearly? what are the external forces that he thinks are getting in the way?
The effects of monasticism- unable to hear the word because of what the world says about Christianity.
The Pope- hierarchy of the Church. Twists the word of God, corrupted by this.
Scholasticism- The philosophy confuses people. Allowing them to not truly hear and see the word.
Zwingli's writing, The Clarity and Certainty of the Word of God: What way does Zwingli think will restore the Church?
to restore the church, people need to go straight to the Word, in the original language, and in humility. Need to be taught by the Word itself.
Bullinger: What happened as the Switzerland reformation proceeded?
Switzerland split into cantons. These cantons became either against reformation or for. This rival between these became warfare.
Bullinger: What caused the death of Zwingli?
The warfare that was going on between the cantons in Switzerland.
Bullinger: What did he do after Zwingli died?
he continued the Switzerland reformation.
Bullinger: his writing, the Decades- what did this volume consist of?
five volume work. includes 50 sermons, 10 sermons for each volume.
Bullinger: his writing, The Decades- What was his concern through the Decades?
showing concern with tradition of the early centuries of the church.
Bullinger: His writing, The Decades- What do the first three sermons deal with?
The word of God, and the authority of God.
Bullinger: His writing, The Decades- According to Bullinger where is the source of knowing authoritatively in the Christian Faith?
in the word of God.
Bullinger: His writing, The Decades- What does Bullinger say the word is?
The word of God is primarily the son of God and secondary the speech of God recording in writing.
Bullinger: His writing, The decades- How does Bullinger say God speaks? Examples of ways God speaks.
God having no mouth uses human speech and revelation.
For example: directly to Moses, through angels, through prophets, and through Christ.
God speaks his truth in various ways.
Bullinger: how does he see the spoken word of God and the written word of God?
sees no difference between them.
Bullinger has no problem seeing spoken and written word of God.
Even though the written letter comes later than the orally, he sees it as the same.
Bullinger: How was the oral words of God preserved before they were written according to Bullinger?
divine power preserves the information that was spoken orally. The Holy Spirit made sure the spoken word was staying accurate and kept from destruction.
What does Bullinger believe that Zwingli believes as well about the Holy Spirit?
The Holy Spirit helps us to understand the scriptures.
Bullinger: his writing, The Decades- Who are the recipients of the word of God?
Bullinger believes that the word of God is written to everyone in all time.
Bullinger: His writing, The decades: recipients- how does Bullinger see the OT and the NT?
The OT and the NT are means to be in play together.
OT- some things are forever, but some things are just for a time.
Bullinger: His writing, The decades: recipients- What is a great way to tell what is forever in the OT and what things are just for a time (ceremony)?
Seeing what the NT shows us what is still in play and what is not.
Jesus and his disciples quote the OT.
The NT interprets the OT.
Bullinger: His writing the decades: Sufficiency. What is bulliger's way of describing the word of God being sufficient?
Word of God is enough. Scripture is sufficient on to God's purpose, even though not everything Jesus said was written down.
Bullinger: His writing The Decades: Sufficiency. What is scriptures end result/God's purpose according to Bullinger?
The end result/purpose is salvation- a right relationship with God.
Bullinger: His writing The Decades: The Proper Hearing- how do you hear or read scripture properly according to Bullinger? What are the six requires from Bullinger on truly hearing the scriptures?
1. read/hear with great reverence
2. read and hear prayerfully, and attentively.
3. seriousness looking into God's word.
4. true faith is needed and trusting what the scriptures say.
5. World affairs must be set aside, not allowing the world to distract us.
6. we need to constantly have the Holy Spirit helping us to understand the scriptures.
Bullinger: His writing, The Decades. The word of God and its exposition. How is the word of God clear and understandable?
God has talked through common forms of speech to reach out to all human kind not just high educational people. The language and speech forms are common.
Bullinger: His writing, the Decades. the word of God and its exposition. What does Bullinger say to do/what do you need when there is a passage hard to understand?
You need faith and the Holy Spirit.
Also interpret scripture with scripture. Take the hard passage and interpret it with an easier passage to interpret.
Bullinger: His writing, the Decades. The word of God and its exposition (interpretation). What is the danger of human exposition of scripture?
we are always dangerous of making scripture say what we want it to say, our own and wrong interpretation.
Bullinger: The Decades. The word of God and its exposition(interpretation) What are the two basic principles of interpretation that Bullinger offers?
1. Knowledge of the original languages in the Word of God.
2. Read the passage in the literally context (exegesis).
Bullinger: The Decades- Word of God and its exposition (interpretation)- what is the different between exegesis and eisegesis?
exegesis- is when interpretation is taken out of the text.
eisegesis- reading into the text, deductive approach, you read scripture through the lens of your presuppositions, making scripture say what we want it to say.
Bullinger: The Decades- Word of God and its exposition (interpretation)- what are Bullinger's five rules when it comes to properly interpreting scirpture, based on his two principles?
1. scripture interprets scripture because all scripture is inspired by God.
2. pay attention to historical culture, linguistic culture (words and how they were used at the time), and the author's intentions.
3. Value of tradition. Seeing what the traditional interpretation of the church has said.
4. The proper effect of the proper interpretation. Effect= increased love for God and humanity. If you have an interpretation of scripture that makes you love God and humanity less, then you should re-interpret.
5. scripture can only be truly interpreted by people who love God and seek to do his will.
Bullinger: How does he see the Holy Spirit's role in the process of the exposition (interpretation) of scripture?
The Holy Spirit can help and guide us into truly understanding the scriptures and see the scriptures clearly.
Best interpreter of any book is the author.
John Calvin- French Reformer. Why was he considered a systematic theologian?
He was studying theology, but then switched over to law. So he was more in the mindset of law when discussing theology. Calvin has a lawyers mind.
John Calvin- French Reformer. During his God experience, what did he feel like God was calling him to do?
restore the Church to its original purity.
John Calvin- What made him break from the Catholic Church and escape to Switzerland?
The persecution of the protestants.
John Calvin- what did John Calvin wrote in 1536?
he wrote the first addition of the institutes of the Christian religion.
John Calvin- his writing, the institutes of the Christian religion expanded. started with how many chapters and how many chapters did the writing end up with?
started with 6 chapters and ended with 8 chapters by 1560.
John Calvin- what did the town of Ganiva ask John Calvin to start?
the town wanted him to start a reformation.
John Calvin- How did he go about making a reformation in the town of Ganiva?
he set up structures and policies to develop certain civil practices and structures.
He made God rule.
John Calvin- What was the Ganiva Academy that Calvin established?
Ganiva Academy was a theological training school. Trained in reformation theology.
John Calvin- Who ran the school Ganiva Academy?
One of Calvin's students, Theodore.
John Calvin- What did Calvin write a lot about?
God's scripture. Calvin was a biblical commentator. He commentated to almost every book of the OT and NT.
John Calvin- What are the three aspects on the word that Calvin focuses on in the systematic theology?
The ground of confidence in scripture
word and spirit
the unity of scripture
John Calvin- the three aspects on the word- #1 The ground of confidence in scripture: Where does scripture gain its authority according to Calvin?
He emphasis's the spirits witness. The soul source of authority is God himself, no human source has authority. The Holy Spirit helps us to understand, and it is all by the Holy Spirit's witness.
John Calvin- The three aspects on the word- #1 the ground of confidence in scripture: Scripture is self-authentication. why is scripture self-authentication?
because it is sprung from God. The scriptures are authored and inspired by God.
John Calvin- The three aspects on the word- #1 the ground of confidence in scripture: What is the Holy Spirits ministry in self-authentication?
The ministry of the spirit is illuminating the meaning of scripture in our hearts, helps seal the scripture in our hearts.
John Calvin The three aspects on the Word- #2 Relationship between word and spirit: What is the relationships that John Calvin describes between the word and the spirit?
You cannot understand the word without the spirit and you cannot understand the spirit without the word of God. you need the one to understand the other.
This is a interrelated function.
John Calvin: The three aspects on the word- #2 Relationship between word and spirit: How do you discern the Holy Spirit?
Look at the word of God and see what the scriptures say about the spirit.
If your spiritual experience does not match up with what the scriptures say about the Holy Spirit then it was another spirit.
John Calvin: The three aspects on the word- #2 Relationship between word and spirit: Why did Calvin discuss spiritual experiences and how to discern them?
People in Calvin's day were having "spiritual experiences". So Calvin wrote about how to discern the spiritual experiences and see if it is the Holy Spirit moving or another spirit.
John Calvin: The three aspects on the word- #3 Unity of Scripture: How does he view the OT and the NT?
He views the scripture of the OT and the NT as a unity. He sees differences between OT and NT, but he does not degrade the OT in favor of the NT.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 Unity of Scripture: What concept does Calvin hold to about the OT and NT scriptures?
Held to the concept of one covenant. He sees the law that is expressed in the OT as finished in and pointing to the NT.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: What was the covenant before Adam's fall and after Adam's fall?
Before the fall- the covenant of works
after the fall- covenant of grace.
he sees these covenants as one but with different modes.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: What does Calvin say the testaments agree on?
agree on purpose.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: What is the purpose and the goal of the testaments according to Calvin?
the purpose- God is establishing covenant people.
the goal- eternal life.
John Calvin: the three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: What is the difference between the two covenants?
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: What does the mode in the covenants mean?
mode- the manner by which how God is revealing himself.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: What is the mode (how God reveals himself) in the OT?
revealed himself (God) through ritual sacrifices.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: How does Calvin see the OT and its role?
Calvin sees the OT pointing to the gospel or typology.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word-#3 unity of scripture: What does God use to prepare OT to the NT?
God used types (typology) to help prepare OT to the type yet to come.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: Calvin thinks that the OT is pointing to the gospel or typology. What is Christian typology? and what is an example of Christian typology (types)?
Christian typology is revealing references of Christ in the OT that points beyond itself and being fully revealed in Christ in the NT.
Example- first Adam and second Adam. These types of Christ found in the OT are giving hints to what will be fulfilled in Jesus in the NT.
John Calvin: The three aspects of the word- #3 unity of scripture: God reveals himself in typological (types) ways, but gradually. what is this called?
progressive revelation. So that people will understand the revelation of Christ when he comes.
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