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39 terms

Models

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Demographic Transition Model
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Warren Thompson
The DTM is based on a theory by this American Demographer in 1929
Gravity Model
A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service
Epidemiological Transition Model
Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.
Abdel Omran
The ETM was developed by this epidemiologist in 1971
Malthus' Population Theory
Theory that the world's rate of population increase is far outrunning the development of food supplies.
Thomas Malthus
Developed a theory on population in 1798
Core-periphery Model
States that as a given region grows and develops from a central starting point, the core, its development is bound to spread to and influence peripheral locations as it continues to expand
John Friedmann
He developed the Core-periphery model in 1963
Domino Theory
the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall.
Human Development Index
An indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by the UN, combining income, literacy, education, and life expectancy
Rostow's Development Model
This model defines development of all regions as occurring in five stages of varying lengths dependent on a region's rate of development. The five stages are as follows: Traditional society, Preconditions to takeoff, Takeoff, Drive to maturity, and Age of mass consumption.
Neocolonialism
the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies.
Sector Model
States that a city develops in a series of sectors surrounding the CBD
Homer Hoyt
He created the sector model in 1939
Von Thunen's Agricultural model
According to this model a commercial farmer initially considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location
Central Place Theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther. Market areas are represented by hexagons.
Walter Christaller
He developed the central place theory in the 1930s
Rank-size Rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the settlement. This indicates that a society is sufficiently wealthy to justify the provision of goods and services to consumers throughout the country.
Primate City Rule (Urban Primacy)
A pattern of settlements in a country such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. This indicates that there is not enough wealth in a country to pay for a full variety of services. This may constitute a hardship for people who must travel long distances for services such as shopping and health services.
George Zipf
He developed the rank-size rule in 1949
Mark Jefferson
He developed the Primate City rule in 1939
Concentric Zone Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings
E. W. Burgess
He developed the concentric zone model in 1923
Multiple Nuclei Model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities. This shows the decentralization of American cities.
Harris and Ullman
They developed the the multiple nuclei model in 1945
Modernization Theory
A description and explanation of the processes of transformation from traditional or underdeveloped societies to modern societies. Rostow's Theory is a modernization theory.
Dependency Theory
the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It's based on a Marxist view of the world.
Sustainable Development
The level of development that can be maintained in a country without depleting resources to the extent that future generations will be unable to achieve a comparable level of development
Bid-rent Theory
The bid rent theory is a geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand for real estate change as the distance from the central business district (CBD) increases. It states that different land users will compete with one another for land close to the city center.
Least Cost Theory
It states that an industry is located where the transportation costs of raw materials and final product is a minimum; bulk-reducing industry and bulk-gaining industry. Weber's Model of Industrial Location. The Varignon Frame is a visual representation of this.
Weber Model of Industrial Location
Another name for the Least Cost Theory
Alfred Weber
He developed the Least Cost Theory (Weber Model of Industrial Location)
Heartland Theory
The theory proposed that whoever controls Eastern Europe controls the Heartland. It also supported the concept of world dominance.
Rimland Theory
Stated that Eurasia's rimland, the coastal areas, is the key to controlling the World Island; the rimland contains the heartland
Nicholas John Spykman
Developed the Rimland theory
Halford John Mackinder
Developed the Heartland theory in 1904
World Systems Theory
It has a three-level hierarchy: core, periphery, and semi-periphery it states that Core countries are dominant capitalist countries that exploit peripheral countries for labor and raw materials.
Immanuel Wallerstein
He developed the best know version of the world system's theory in the 1970s