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25 terms

The Judicial Branch Key Terms

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Surround
To be all around
Incident
An event or occurrence
Contract
A written or spoken agreement
Neutral
Not helping or supporting either of two sides
Juvenile
A young person
Framework
An essential supporting structure of a building, vehicle, or object.
Impartial
Treating all rivals or disputants equally; fair and just.
Clarify
Make(a statement or situation) less confused and more clearly comprehensible.
Declare
Say something in a solemn and emphatic manner
Focus
The center of interest or activity
Summarize
Give a brief statement of the main points of something
Dissenting
Hold or express opinions that are at variance with those previously, commonly, or officially expressed.
Plaintiff
An individual or a group of people who bring a complaint against another party in a civil case.
Defendant
The party who answers a complaint and defends against it in a court case.
Prosecution
A government body that brings a charge against a defendant who is accused of breaking one of its laws
Precedant
A guideline for how similar cases should be decided in the future.
Original Jurisdiction
A courts authority to hear a case first
Appeal
To ask a higher court to review a decision and determine whether justice was done
Apellate Jurisdiction
A courts authority to hear an appeal of a decision by another court.
Courts of appeals
Courts that handle appeals from lower federal district courts.
Circuit courts
another name for the courts of appeals
Judicial Review
The supreme courts power to overturn any law that it decides is in conflict with the constitution
Opinion
A written statement by a court explaining the reasons for a decision
Judicial Activism
An effort by judges to take an active role in policy making by overturning laws relatively often.
Judicial Restraint
An effort by judges to avoid overturning laws and to leave policy making up to the other two branches of government.