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To be all around


An event or occurrence


A written or spoken agreement


Not helping or supporting either of two sides


A young person


An essential supporting structure of a building, vehicle, or object.


Treating all rivals or disputants equally; fair and just.


Make(a statement or situation) less confused and more clearly comprehensible.


Say something in a solemn and emphatic manner


The center of interest or activity


Give a brief statement of the main points of something


Hold or express opinions that are at variance with those previously, commonly, or officially expressed.


An individual or a group of people who bring a complaint against another party in a civil case.


The party who answers a complaint and defends against it in a court case.


A government body that brings a charge against a defendant who is accused of breaking one of its laws


A guideline for how similar cases should be decided in the future.

Original Jurisdiction

A courts authority to hear a case first


To ask a higher court to review a decision and determine whether justice was done

Apellate Jurisdiction

A courts authority to hear an appeal of a decision by another court.

Courts of appeals

Courts that handle appeals from lower federal district courts.

Circuit courts

another name for the courts of appeals

Judicial Review

The supreme courts power to overturn any law that it decides is in conflict with the constitution


A written statement by a court explaining the reasons for a decision

Judicial Activism

An effort by judges to take an active role in policy making by overturning laws relatively often.

Judicial Restraint

An effort by judges to avoid overturning laws and to leave policy making up to the other two branches of government.

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